Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks
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World Hallmarks Overview
Index of Nations

A - E                   E - I                   J - U

Japanese Silver Marks

Japanese Hallmarks
1 - Character mark "jungin" meaning "pure silver".
Used primarily in during the Meiji period (1868-1912) and for a short period after.

2 & 3 - Ordinances of 1928 & 1954 called for use of decimal standard marks (eg. .950)

Korean HallmarksKorean Silver Marks

Korean Silver, hangulhangul silver 990

Korean Silver Marks

Latvian Hallmarks Latvia
20th Cent.
Silver purity in thousandths (.875 or .916) plus initialed Maker's Mark.

top ~ Local production
bottom ~ Imports

Maltese Hallmarks Malta

Current Maltese Assay Marks


19th Century


20th Century

20th Century
Mexican Marks

European Hallmarks


Dutch Hallmarks & Date Marks

European Hallmarks Norway

19th & 20th Cent.
Silver standard and maker's mark.

Norwegian Silver Marks

Polish HallmarksPoland Hallmarks

Polish Silver marks

Polish Hallmarks
after 1920

Portuguese Hallmarks

Portuguese Silver MarksPortugal Hallmarks
Portugal 1886 - 1938

Both eagle and boar were used, stamp shape changed to indicate city of assay. In 1938, the Roman numerals changed to Arabic numerals and the boar mark retired.
Portuguese Assay Marks - from 1938

Portuguese Assay Marks - Current

Russian Hallmarks Russia

Guide to Russian Hallmarks

Scottish Hallmarks

Scottish Hallmarks - Glasgow

18th C. - present
top ~ town mark of Edinburgh
bottom ~ town mark of Glasgow

British Hallmarks

Spanish hallmarks, Plata de Ley

spanish silver marks
1934 - Present

Pentagram is a quality mark indicating a minimum of .915 purity, it is usually accompanied by a maker's mark in a hexagonal stamp or an importer's mark in a triangle.

Swedish Hallmarks

Sweden Hallmarks

1912 - Present
Marks used from mid 18th Cent.- 1912 are very similar.
Swedish Hallmarks
& Date Marks

Swiss Hallmarks Switzerland

top ~ 1882 - 1934
Bear - .875 and above
Grouse - .800
bottom ~ 1934 - Present?
Duck - .925
Grouse - .800
Hallmarks compulsory for watch cases, optional on other ware.

Turkish Hallmarks

Ottoman Hallmarks

Turkish Silver MarksTurkish Marks

top ~ Ottoman Empire
? - 1923
Tughra Mark of the Sultan & Standard Mark
.800 & .900 used

middle ~ Turkish Republic
marks used from 1923

bottom ~ Turkish Republic
marks used 1939-1942

American Sterling
United States

from c.1870
Standard mark & maker's mark.

American Silver Marks

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Related Pages at
British Hallmarks
Austrian Hallmarks
Dutch Hallmarks
Finnish Hallmarks & Makers
French Hallmarks & Makers
German Hallmarks

Russian Hallmarks
Italian Marks from 1872
Swedish Hallmarks
Danish Hallmarks
Norwegian Makers
David-Andersen Marks

Georg Jensen Marks
Yogya Silver
Mexican Marks & Makers
Chinese Export Marks
American Silver Marks
Silverplate Trademarks

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