Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks
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Russian Hallmarks ~ Imperial Period ~ City Marks

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City Marks

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Russian Silver Marks Overview

Russian City Marks ~ Smaller Cities & Towns
Astrakhan - Kiev
Астрахань - Киев
Kostroma - Tallinn
Кострома - Таллин
Tartu - Zhitomir
Тарту - Житомир


Although the shape of its cartouche changed over time, the crown and sword were used from the mid 18th until the late 19th century.

Astrakhan Arms

unidentified silversmith
Vasily Peretrutov (assayer) В. Перетрутов
Astrakhan 1822


Currently in Azerbaijan. The city symbol is three flames.

Baku Arms



Located in Belarus. Town mark is a horseman above a bull, marking in the Russian system began sometime after from 1823.

Regional Arms

Jakub Preisyg (silversmith) Яков Преисyг
(assayer not shown)
Grodno c.1830

unidentified silversmith
Lavrenty Balabanov (assayer) Л. Балабанов
Grodno 1855

18th C.

Early mark, used in the 18th century. There is some confusion in the literature regarding this town mark. Rosenberg lists it as Novgorod, Postnikova-Loseva for both Tobolosk and Irkutsk, and Tardy only for Irkutsk. As the depiction only matches the Arms of Siberia, Irkutsk is the most probable identity.

Siberian Arms


Jelgava / Elgava / Mitau
(Елгава / Митава)

Located in Latvia. Head of an elk used from c.1850-1899

Jelgava Arms

unidentified silversmith
Nicholaus Schultz (assayer) Николай Шульц
Jelgava 1852

unidentified silversmith
unidentified assayer
Jelgava 1869

18th - 19th C.



Emperor’s Crown above a fess was adopted in the late 18th century, earlier mark (not illustrated) was the imperial double headed eagle above "Г К"

Kaluga Arms

Lev Vasilyev (silversmith) Лев Васильев
Kirill Degusar (assayer) Кирилл Дегусар
Kaluga 1877

Lev Vasilyev (silversmith) Лев Васильев
Kirill Degusar (assayer) Кирилл Дегусар
Kaluga 1879

unidentified silversmith
Kirill Degusar (assayer) Кирилл Дегусар
Kaluga 1885




Located in Ukraine. The double headed imperial eagle with crown, used until c.1880. This mark is often confused with those of Warsaw & Minsk. Circa 1880 the cross and sun came into use.

County Arms

unidentified silversmith
Jozef Vakar (assayer) Иозеф Вакар
Kamenetz-Podolsk 1858

unidentified silversmith
Andrey Sarapultsev (assayer) А.Сарапульцев
Kamenetz-Podolsk 1860

N. Fayngold (silversmith) Н. Файнгольд
Kamenetz-Podolsk 1889


Kaunas / Kovno
(Каунас / Ковно)

Located in Lithuania. Postnikova-Loseva illustrates the marks at left for the town of Simbirsk, however items consistently appear carrying this mark alongside Kaunas assayers and makers.

Kaunas Arms

Leizer Scheinker (silversmith) Л. Шеинкеръ
Konstantin Kolpakov (assayer) К. Колпаков
Kaunas 1881

unidentied silversmith
Konstantin Kolpakov (assayer) К. Колпаков
Kaunas 1882

M. Ассъ (silversmith) M. Ass (Asche)
unidentified assayer
Kaunas 1897

2nd half 18th C.


late 19th C.

Located in Republic of Tatarstan. The Zilant, a mythical winged snake was
used as the town mark from the mid 18th century.

Kazan Arms

Spiridon Rukavishnikov (assayer) С. Рукавишников
Kazan 1763

unidentified silversmith
S. Shebanov (assayer) С. Шебанов
Kazan 1885

Fyodor Kozlov (silversmith) Федор Козлов
S. Shebanov (assayer) С. Шебанов
Kazan 1885

until 1777

late 19th C.

Located in Ukraine. "Kiov" in oval or heart cartouche used as the town mark in the 18th century. Variations of the Archangel Michael, wielding a flaming sword, were used 1778-1896.

Kiev Arms

unidentified silversmith
A. Vyrzhikovsky (assayer) А. Выржиковский
Kiev 1888

I.E. Zaviyanov (silversmith) И.Е. Завиянов
Stakhy Orlov (assayer) Стахий Орлов
Kiev 1894

   Золотое и серебряное дело XV-ХХ вв - M.M. Postnikova-Loseva, Ivanova, Uljanova; Nauka, 1983
   Russian Gold and Silver - Alexander von Solodkoff; Trefoil Books, 1981
   Russian Silver - Andrei Gilodo; Beresta Moscow, 1993
   Znaki srebra do lat 40. dwudziestego wieku w Polsce - Sławomir Bołdok; Mako Press, 2005 Silver Marks Forum - various member posts, 2005-2013

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Related Pages at
World Hallmarks
British Hallmarks Explained
Dutch Hallmarks
German Hallmarks
French Hallmarks
Austrian Hallmarks
Danish Hallmarks
Swedish Hallmarks
Finnish Hallmarks
Norwegian Makers
David-Andersen Marks
Georg Jensen Marks

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