Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks
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Russian Hallmarks ~ Kokoshnik Marks

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1896 ~ 1908 The First Kokoshnik Mark
In 1896, Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) issued an edict that reformed the older assay marking system and the Kokoshnik mark came into being. As thousands of new diestamps had to be created, there was a transitional changeover period (see first mark) and the kokoshnik mark did not come into full use until the beginning of 1899.
Until 1908, the mark consisted of an intaglio engraved left facing woman's head in profile within an oval cartouche, she is wearing the peasant headdress traditionally referred to as a kokoshnik, thus giving the stamp its name. To her left is the standard number and to her right are the assayer's initials which also indicate the assay office.
(key to Cyrillic alphabet)
Note A trial kokoshnik was launched in the latter half of 1898. However, the size of the mark, numbers, and letters did not meet the required specifications and it was quickly withdrawn. Only two assayers were known to have used it; Ivan Lebedkin (ИЛ) in Moscow and Yakov Lyapunov (ЯЛ) in St. Petersburg.
Moscow - 1898
St. Petersburg -1898
А А Anatoli Apollonovich Artsybashev
Анатолий Аполлонович Арцыбашев
Vilnius 1899-1908, 1914
Kiev 1915-1916
Astrakhan 1916
А В Aleksandr Kazimirovich Vyrzhikovsky
Александр Казимирович Выржиковский
Kiev 1899-1904
Warsaw 1904-1908
А Р Anton Vasilijevitch Richter
Антон Васильевич Рихтер
Astrakhan 1899-1916
А Р Aleksandr Vasilyevitch Romanov
Александр Васильевич Романов
Riga 1899
Warsaw 1899-1904
А С Aleksandr Nikolaievitch Snarsky
Александр Николаевич Снарский
Ekaterinburg 1899-1900
Kostroma 1900-1910
Г Б Gedeon Naz. Bychkov
Гедеон Наз. Бычков
Kostroma 1899
И А Ivan Andreyevich Ado
Иван Андреевич Адо
Kazan 1899-1916
И Л Ivan Sergeyevich Lebedkin
Иван Сергеевич Лебедкин
Moscow 1898-1914
И С Ilya Egorovich Sorokin
Илья Егорович Сорокин
Odessa 1899-1910
И Ш Iosif Aleksandrovich Shmidetsky
Iосиф Александрович Шмидецкий
Tiflis 1903-1904
Transkaukasia 1899-1908
К З Kliment Anikiyevich Zagayevsky
Климент Аникиевич Загаевский
Riga 1899-1916
Л О Lev Fridrikhovich Oleks
Лев Фридрихович Олекс
Moscow 1899-1904,1915-1917
Kiev 1905-1914
Ilia Georgiyevich Sorokin
Илиа Георгиевич Сорокин
Odessa 1899-1910
Я Л Yakov Nikolayevich Lyapunov
Яков Николаевич Ляпунов
St. Petersburg 1898-1903
Ф К Fyodor Petrovich Konovalov
Федор Петрович Коновалов
Rostov 1899-1911
- Import Marks
Mark within a standing oval, its lower end flattened. Head facing left, below the jaw is a capital letter indicating the assayer's surname (in this case "З" for assayer Kliment Zagayevsky).

1908 ~ 1926 The Second Kokoshnik Mark
From 1908, the mark style is changed from intaglio to relief, the woman's profile is facing right with the standard number to her right, on the far left is a small Greek letter included as indicator of the region of assay.

St. Petersburg


Regional Letters
St. Petersburg   Moscow   Odessa   Kiev   Caucusus
Vilnius   Riga   Kostroma   Kazan   Don
The Second Kokoshnik Import Mark    

The import mark's head is turned right and sits atop a Greek letter indicating the assay office (in this case the delta for Moscow). This mark was used on silver items manufactured in other countries and imported into Russia.

   Золотое и серебряное дело XV-ХХ вв - M.M. Postnikova-Loseva, Ivanova, Uljanova; Nauka, 1983
   Russian Gold and Silver - Alexander von Solodkoff; Trefoil Books, 1981
   Russian Silver - Andrei Gilodo; Beresta Moscow, 1993
   Znaki srebra do lat 40. dwudziestego wieku w Polsce - Sławomir Bołdok; Mako Press, 2005 Silver Marks Forum - various member posts, 2005-2013

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David-Andersen Marks
Georg Jensen Marks

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