Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks
• • •
Illustrated Silver Glossary (L - R)

    www . 925-1000 . com   ••    www . 925-1000 . com   ••    www . 925-1000 . com  

A - C          C - E          E - K          L - R          S - W
click on images to enlarge
Latten - Copper alloys, similar to brass, used in the Middle Ages and through to the late 18th and early 19th Centuries.
(submitted by - Trev)
Latticed - Decorative technique consisting of a series of diagonal crossbars.
(submitted by - Trev)
Lemel - The scrapings and filings of silver that accummulate on the workbench of a silversmith. When mixed with other workshop detritus, called "sweeps".
(submitted by - Trev)
Leopard's Head - The town mark for London.
Lion Passant Guardant - Walking lion looking to the left, English standard 925-1000 pre 1822.
(submitted by - Trev)


Lion Passant - Walking lion looking forward.
1. English standard mark 925-1000 post 1822.
2. Dutch silver standard mark used after 1814.
(submitted by - Trev)
Lion Rampant - Lion standing on its hind legs.
1. Scottish standard 925-1000.
2. Dutch silver standard mark; crowned before c.1810, uncrowned after 1814 for .934 standard
(submitted by - Trev)
Lion Sejant - Seated lion as found in heraldry and as a terminal on some 17th century spoons.
(submitted by - Trev)
Little Master - Georgian term for a silversmith who worked on his own or as a small concern, he did not retail his output but filled orders from larger firms. He may have stamped the work with his own mark or if requested with the mark of the firm he was supplying. He would be responsible for having the work assayed and on delivery was paid in three seperate amounts - for the silver, for the work and for the duty.
(submitted by - Trev)
Loading - A term used for a method of weighting and strengthening thin silver items such as candlesticks and knife hafts. Resins and cement are commonly used. Loaded American silver holloware is sometimes marked; "Base Loaded", "Weighted" or "Cement Loaded"
(submitted by - Trev)
Lozenge - A diamond shaped cartouche. Lozenge marks were used in France for silversmiths makers marks (from 1797) and in England to denote that the silversmith was a widow.
(submitted by - Trev)
Maker's Mark - The proprietary mark of the individual silversmith. It ensures a responsible party for the standard mark.
Married Metals - The soldering or fusing of two or more different metal sheets for a jigsaw-like effect. Called metales casados in Spanish, the technique was used effectively by a number of Taxco metalsmiths. Illustrated is a married metals bowl by Los Castillo.
(submitted by - JLDoggett)


Marrow Spoon - A handle with a long, narrow scoop shaped bowl used to eat the marrow from the center of roasted bones (usually beef). Often double ended with different width bowls at the ends.
(submitted by - JLDoggett)
Match Safe - see; Vesta Case
Mazarine - Large shallow dish with a pierced straining plate for cooking fish.
(submitted by - Trev)
Mazer - A British term for a wooden drinking bowl with silver mounts, a surprising number of these have survived due to relatively small amount of silver used they were not worth melting down, popular 14th. to 16th. century.
(submitted by - Trev)
Medicine Spoon - A double bowled folding spoon used for the administration of medicines.
Monteith Bowl - A large bowl with a scalloped top rim for suspending glasses into the water to cool them, the rim is often detachable so when removed, the Monteith becomes a punchbowl. They are usually about 12 inches in diameter and first appeared in the late 17th century.
(submitted by - Trev)
Mote Spoon - A pierced spoon with a needle-like handle, used to skim tea leaves and unclog spouts.
Mounts - Raised decorative or structural elements, made separately and soldered onto an object. These include; legs, feet, finials, handles and appliques. Today, mounts on silverplate are usually made of white metal.
(submitted by - Patrick)
Muffineer - A small caster for sprinkling sugar, or a sugar/cinnamon mix, on muffins.
(submitted by - Trev)
Mull - see; Snuff Mull
Mullet - Five pointed star sometimes incorporated into makers marks and heraldic devices.
(submitted by - Trev)
Nef - Silver model of a ship fitted with containers for table condiments. A continental form usually associated with the Netherlands.
(submitted by - Trev)
Nickel Silver - see; Alpacca
Nimbus - The disc representing a halo on apostle spoons.
(submitted by - Trev)
Nutmeg Grater - a small metal fine-toothed grater with a covered box on one end. A nutmeg is stored in the box and grated as needed.
(submitted by - JLDoggett)
Obba - An ancient form of drinking vessel similar to a cantharus, but without a foot so that it could not be set down, in use like a stirrup cup.
(submitted by - Trev)
Objects of virtu - Small luxury items such as snuff boxes, mulls, vinaigrettes, necessaires, seals and needle cases. Often made of silver, as well as gold, tortoiseshell, porcelain and enamel.
Ogee - A bowl, foot or molding form, its profile in the shape of a double curve like an elongated S.
Onslow - Pattern of flatware sometimes called Scroll, narrow stemmed, widening at the terminal which was ribbed and folding over downwards into a widening volute. Pattern was popular c. 1740-1760, it is said to be named after Arthur Onslow (1691-1768) Speaker of the House of Commons.
(submitted by - Trev)
Oxidation - Silver tarnish that adds accented beauty to the ornamentation by providing shadows and highlights that give depth and character.
Paktong - A copper-nickel-zinc alloy of white color, invented in China and brought to Europe during the 18th century. It inspired the invention of nickel silver. see; Alpacca
Pap Boat - Small boat shaped dishes with no handles or feet and with a pronounced lip, used for feeding children and invalids with pap a mixture of bread and milk, popular 1710-1830. They were often converted into small sauce boats.
(submitted by - Trev)
Parcel Gilding - Partial or part gilding, a technique in which a mask of varnish is applied to the areas of the object that the plater does not want gilded. It can be a highly effective form of decoration.
Patch Box - a small box in metal, ivory, bone, hard stone or ceramic, used to hold small cloth patches originally used to cover facial blemishes.
(submitted by - JLDoggett)
Paten - Plate held under the chin of the recipient in the sacrament of Holy Communion.
(submitted by - Trev)
Patina - The changes to the surface layer of an object resulting from natural aging and use. In silver we tend to think of it as the soft luster caused by tiny and microscopic scratches and the oxidation contained therein.
Pennyweight - A unit of Troy weight. It is equal to 24 grains, 1/20th of a troy ounce or 1/240th of a troy pound. It was the the original weight of the old English silver penny, of which 240 made a Pound Sterling. Abbreviation (dwt). see; Troy Weight
Pheon - Heraldic term for a broad arrow head, often employed in engraved crests.
(submitted by - Trev)
Pickle - A diluted acid solution used for removing oxides and flux residue from metal after annealing or soldering. The items are immersed in the heated pickle for a short period, then rinsed and dried. Nitric, Sulphuric, and Hydrochloric acids are commonly used in the mixture.
(submitted by - Trev)
Pinchbeck - An alloy of copper and zinc, intended to imitate gold. Named for its inventor, Christopher Pinchbeck (d.1734), a London watchmaker.
(submitted by - Trev)
Pique - the process of inserting metal into ivory or tortoise shell to form a pattern.
(submitted by - JLDoggett)
Piercing - Decorative technique in which parts of the silver are cut away by hand with a fine saw and refined by filing to form a pierced pattern. Now mostly rendered with cutting dies.
Planishing - The removal of indents caused by hammer blows struck in the making of an item. It is accomplished using a planishing hammer which has a polished and only slightly convex head.
(submitted by - Trev)
Plate - An antiquated term for wrought solid silver objects. The term predates the invention of silverplating and its original definition has gone out of use due to the confusion of meanings. Today it is more commonly used to describe objects that have been silverplated.
Pomander - Early ancestor of the vinaigrette, a container used for holding an aromatic mixture of flowers/fruit and spices. Often round in form, with segmented compartments, and worn as a pendant. They were used as a protection against odor or plague infection.
(submitted by - Patrick)
Porringer - In America, a shallow, usually single handled bowl for the serving of gruel or porridge. This form is called a "bleeding bowl" in Britain.
see; Caudle Cup
Posset Pot - see; Caudle Cup
Potato Ring - see; Dish Ring
Pounced - The decorative technique of treating the metal surface with a dotted texture. Similar to stippling, pouncing is often used as a background treatment for repousse work.
(submitted by - Trev)
Precious Metals - Gold, silver, platinum, palladium and their alloys. All resistant to corrosion and classed as noble metals.
Pricked Work - Decorative technique in which a series of dots are punched into the surface of an object to create initials, dates or designs, popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.This tradition continued later in northern European and Scandinavian countries.
(submitted by - Trev)
Provenance - Documented evidence of the history or origins of an item, such as; a purchase receipt, auction record, or mention in a will or inventory. Ideally, provenance would track the item from creation to the present day.
(submitted by - Trev)
Pseudomarks - Silver marks that are not regulated or administered by an officially sanctioned assay office or guild. Generally intended to imitate official hallmarks.
(submitted by - Patrick)
Most commonly seen on American coin silver, China Trade silver and German items from the Hanau area.
Pyx - A round box used for containing consecrated communion wafers. The term is now sometimes used to denote any small box.
(submitted by - Trev)
Quaich - A shallow two-handled drinking cup or bowl originating in Scotland. Usually made of wood, sometimes silver mounted. Commemorative examples are often made of silver. First commonly seen in the 17th century. Pronunciation is similar to 'quake'.
Quatrefoil - Lobed design based on a four leaf petal, as is the cartouche form of this Barnard maker's mark.
(submitted by - Trev)
Rat Tail - Long tapering design used on the back of the bowl as an elongated drop on early eighteenth century English spoons, remaining popular for a much longer period on Irish spoons. Also Rattail
(submitted by - Trev)
Repousse - Decorative technique dependent on hammering the object from the reverse side in order to raise decoration on the front, used widely with chasing that gives detail to the form raised.
Reeded - Repetitive linear ornamentation of parallel or radiating lines. Also called Ribbed.
Rocker Engraving - A decorative pattern applied by an engraver walking a flat graver along a given path. This cuts a wiggled or zig-zag edge. The width is determined by the width of the graver used. Also called wrigglework
(submitted by - JLDoggett)
Rococo - Naturalistic style of decoration, using flowers, shells and swags, popular 1730-1765 with an 1830's revival. The style is distincitive in its use of asymmetry in the ornamentation. Successor to the Baroque style.
(submitted by - Trev)
Roulette Engraving - A technique of engraving with which a zig-zag line is cut into the surface of an item using a drum wheel with a patterned roller.
(submitted by - Trev)

A - C          C - E          E - K          L - R          S - W
Related Pages at 925-1000.com:
American Silver Marks
British Hallmarks
Austrian Hallmarks
Dutch Hallmarks
Finnish Hallmarks & Makers
French Hallmarks & Makers
German Hallmarks
Italian Marks from 1872
Swedish Hallmarks
Danish Makers
Norwegian Makers
David-Andersen Marks
Georg Jensen Marks
Yogya Silver
Mexican Marks & Makers
Chinese Export Marks
Silverplate Trademarks

• • •

Looking to do further research? Have a mark you can't identify? Join the forum.



© 2000 - 2009
925-1000.com
all rights reserved