Dutch pseudo marks

PHOTOS REQUIRED - marks + item
oel
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Dutch pseudo marks

Postby oel » Sun Oct 04, 2020 9:11 am

Under construction


Dutch pseudo Marks how it started.

The Great Exhibition, also known as the Crystal Palace Exhibition, was an international exhibition held in Hyde Park, London, England, from 1 May to 15 October 1851 and the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to be a popular 19th century feature. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations (its full title) was organized under the leadership of Prince Albert and members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. It was planned for 4 months. It was a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. Its prime motive was for "Great Britain to show the world its role as an industrial leader. Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the exhibition, which was self-financing. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Technology and moving machinery was popular, especially working exhibits. Visitors could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments included electric telegraphs, microscopes, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical, horological and surgical instruments.
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_G ... %20feature.

At the first world fair in London in 1851, a lot of silverware was displayed that was made with modern methods but was inspired in design by old styles. The Dutch silversmith J. M. van Kempen introduced "pure of style" silver designs. In a brochure published in 1851, for the World Exhibition in London, Van Kempen discusses the five styles he used for his silverware: Greek, Gothic, Renaissance, Louis XIV and Rococo. His main contribution at the first World's Fair consisted of five different objects in historical styles. Each style period represented with objects. In an accompanying letter Van Kempen explained that he had tried every style, as faithfully as possible, to interpret. The star of the exhibit was a jewellery box made by van Kempen which according to the silversmith 'exhibits characteristics of the Renaissance'. Van Kempen showed that with these new methods he could produce silverware in five old styles: Greek, Gothic, Renaissance, Louis XIV and Rococo.
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=28590#p70305
This silverware was very popular and was eagerly bought. This also created a great demand for "real" antique pieces.

People began to collect antique silver for use and for showing off. The scarce supply of antique silver appears not to be enough to meet the high demand. Many people, if given the chance, would rather buy something old than something new. This was at the expense of the Dutch local silversmith who was already struggling at that time. Silversmiths who were still trained to make silver the traditional or non-mechanized way therefore decide to make and / or copy antique silverware. Several silversmiths decide to provide their silverware with old silver (hall)marks. Real silver with imitation marks from the 17th and 18th century.
In the 19th century, the average antique silver enthusiast did not know much about silver marks and was easily pleased. As long as the object looked old and had interesting marks on it. There were hardly any books about Continental silver marks of the Guild period or Ancien Régime. No books were available about old silverware. Dutch silversmiths also didn't know much about the silver marks of their predecessors, so many marks were used interchangeably from different cities and years!
There was another reason to provide new silver with pseudo/ imitation or fantasy marks. If one exported silverware abroad, the importing firm had to pay import duty fee on it. If the silver piece was older than 100 years, the import duties were lower. Schoonhoven silversmiths in particular sold a lot of silver abroad to the UK and U.S.A and mislead customs with these fantasy marks. The new "Old Dutch silver" was shipped in containers full to America and England. Hence the often seen export key attached to the Dutch standard mark. Export key; restitution of 2/3 marking duty granted for new or unused silver objects. This mark was always struck partially into the standard mark. Valid 1853-1953

The introduction of Pseudo Marks around 1860 by Dutch silversmiths in the cities of Amsterdam, The Hague, Schoonhoven, Sneek and surrounding (province Friesland) and Groningen.
Most silverware with pseudo marks comes from the Dutch provinces, Groningen and Friesland and North and South Holland. A lot of ornamental spoons, cream bowls, brandy bowls, purse frames and wedding boxes (knottekistjes) with pseudo marks come from Friesland and Groningen. The fact that these silversmiths still worked according to old craft traditions makes it even more difficult to assess. These are therefore often very beautiful pieces of silver, some of which have the old inscriptions carefully copied.
In Amsterdam and The Hague, especially miniature silver, candlesticks and showpieces such as tobacco pots and urns with carefully imitated (fake) marks.


1.) Pseudo marks or fantasy marks in combination with genuine Dutch marks and maker’s mark.
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=32028
The fantasy marks used as decoration which could fool an ignorant buyer to believe buying an antique piece of silver with old marks.
2.) Pseudo or fantasy marks only and perhaps harder for us to recognize not to be genuine old silver Guild marks. Although today these silver items with pseudo marks are true antique, over 100 years old and as such collectable.
3.) Fake marks to deceive and difficult for an expert to determine with certainty whether genuine seen on ornamental spoons, loderein or scent boxes, tobacco jars, coffee/tea pots and urns, cream bowls and miniature silver toys.
Gratitude Ursula Boonstra Zilver. NL


During this topic we will try to collect and show images of the various Dutch pseudo marks used in accordance with the number(#) in the little red book of K. A. Citroen titled Valse Zilvermerken in Nederland.
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Pseudo marks used by Jan Schijfsma, registered in Sneek and Woudsend, 1844-1898 maker’s mark JS 160.
https://friesscheepvaartmuseum.nl/beeld ... 1000020022
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Pseudo marks left to right; pseudo town mark of Rotterdam(upside down)# 600, pseudo Rotterdam maker’s mark LH crescent star crown for Louis de Haan, active 1742-1781(#216), applicable maker’s mark of Jan Schijfsma JS 160 (turned right), pseudo Lion Rampant, province of Holland 1st standard mark(#623), pseudo Rotterdam year letter N for 1771(#242)

Pseudo marks used by Pier van der Woude
The maker's mark P vd W* for: Pier van der Woude or Firm P. van der Woude, registered in the city of Sneek, active 1898 - 1925. After his dead his widow continued to use his maker's mark. Pier Sytses van der Woude born in the city of Sneek in 1862. In 1898 gold and silversmith in Sneek. Successor of Jan Schijfsma. Died in 1917. The widow continued the business under the name Firma P. van der Woude. The firm continued to exist until 1925., literature: - Fries Scheepvaart Museum Yearbook 1987, p. 22-23
https://friesscheepvaartmuseum.nl/beeld ... 1000017336
https://www.google.com/search?safe=stri ... 4&dpr=1.25
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Pseudo marks
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Pseudo Lion Rampant in shield under crown, province of Holland 1st standard mark(#636, pseudo town mark of Rotterdam(# 600), R.C under crown unknown (pseudo) mark
Same pseudo marks as used by Jan Schijfsma
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First mark; lion rampant 1, official Dutch standard mark silver 934/000 fineness with export key. Last mark GH.1. for assayer Gerrit de Haas, registered in Groningen and Leeuwarden used 1905-1909, 1st standard assay mark.


Pseudo marks used by Alle de Haas.

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Pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#505), pseudo town mark city of Sneek(#611), pseudo year letter city of Zwolle 1798 (#209)
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Pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#505)

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Pseudo year letter city of Zwolle 1798 (#209)
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Pseudo Town mark city of Zwolle (309)
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AH above 1 in a square and in rectangle for; Alle de Haas also known as Fa. (Firm) A. de Haas or Th. De Haas, city of Sneek, mark used 1877/1966. His maker's mark is often seen in combination with pseudo marks.
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Alle de Haas (1849-1923), founder father of Firm Alle de Haas in 1877, was a very talented master using the old silver techniques in combination with fantasy marks and later with pseudo/fake marks.
Friesland' s interest in antique silver is further encouraged by two exhibitions, both held in Leeuwarden, the first in 1900 and second in 1927.
The firm of Alle de Haas continued after his death, using the same maker's mark AH 1, until the firm went out of business in 1966.
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=28590#p116738

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Lion passant above 2 with export key, silver 2nd standard mark, Script letter H 2 in a rectangle with cut corners ( for silver of 2nd standard mark or 833/000 fineness) for assayer; Constantijn Huijgens active 1900-1911 in the cities of Schoonhoven, Leeuwarden, Arnhem and Utrecht. Maker’s mark AH above 1 in square distorted for: Alle de Haas or Firm A. De Haas, registered in Sneek, 1877-1966, year letter for 1901 (not shown)
Export key; restitution of 2/3 marking duty granted for new or unused silver objects. This mark was always struck partially into the standard mark. Valid 1853-1953


Pseudo marks used by Ate de Groot-Boersma
Maker’s mark AB 34, registered in Sneek, 1866-1909. Worked in close cooperation with Alle de Haas.
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Pseudo Lion Rampant in shield under crown, province of Holland 1st standard mark(#624), maker’s mark AB 34 for Ate de Groot-Boersma, followed by a pseudo maker’s mark ( horn in heart shaped shield) of Amsterdam silversmith Arnoldus van Geffen (#455). Under turned right the Dutch dolphin mark. Dolphin mark; the 1859 duty mark for new unguaranteed objects of national origin. This mark was used on all new silver objects below legal standard of fineness, those with non-precious metal additions, and on new heavily gold or silver plated objects, as long as the average precious metal content after melting with the base metal was at least 250/1000. It was also struck on rejected objects which had been submitted at lowest standard of fineness. In that case the maker had to choose between destruction or unguaranteed marking. This mark was sometimes also mistakenly used on old and foreign objects. Dolphin mark used from 1859-1893 and valid from 1859 till 1953.

Brandy bowl, pseudo marks only
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JJS pseudo maker’s mark Amsterdam silversmith Johan Hendrik Schiotling, 1792-1799(#168), dots (?), dumbbell pseudo maker’s mark (#445), D pseudo year letter (#57)

oel
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Re: Dutch pseudo marks

Postby oel » Tue Oct 06, 2020 12:07 pm

Pseudo marks Groningen

The pseudo marks used by Rinze Jans Spaanstra

The family Spaanstra, uncle and nephew; Bouwinus Jans Spaanstra, maker’s mark BS 124 and S above 1 registered Drachten 1837-1880 and his nephew Lomme Renze Spaanstra the son of Rinze Jans Spaanstra, Lomme Renze maker’s mark LS x, registered in Groningen 1887-1901. They have copied a large number of engraved sacramental beakers after the originals in the possession of Groningen churches in the City and Ommelanden.

Rinze Jans Spaanstra maker's mark RS above 2 and RS above 158 for; Rinze Jans Spaanstra a skilful and well known Frisian silversmith registered in Drachten-Wommels-Berlicum-Nijehaske from 1843-till 1896. Known for making copies of antique silver pieces, in the traditional way and the use of pseudo/fantasy marks.
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https://www.oks.nl/search-collection/cr ... 0Jan?hash=

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Bread basket
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IH (#163)pseudo maker’s mark, RS above 2 maker's mark of Rinze Jans Spaanstra, Dutch lion rampant 1st standard mark with export key, cross (#466) pseudo maker’s mark. Below fake town mark of Sneek, The town mark is based on the city coat of arms; a divided crowned shield, at the left the Frisian eagle and on the right three crowns. Above the fake zick zack line (zick zack line made by assayer taking a silver sample to test if the silver sample was of the correct legal standard of fineness, another pseudo mark. These pseudo marks are not shown in the Red Book.

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Dutch legal Dolphin mark; the 1859 duty mark for new unguaranteed objects of national origin. This mark was used on all new silver objects below legal standard of fineness, those with non-precious metal additions, and on new heavily gold or silver plated objects, as long as the average precious metal content after melting with the base metal was at least 250/1000. It was also struck on rejected objects which had been submitted at lowest standard of fineness. In that case the maker had to choose between destruction or unguaranteed marking. This mark was sometimes also mistakenly used on old and foreign objects. Dolphin mark used from 1859-1893 and valid from 1859 till 1953.
crowned O (upside down)(#262), fake tax free mark used 1807, pseudo town mark Amsterdam, pseudo lion rampant crowned shield (#653), N pseudo year letter (#244). The maker’s mark of Rinze Jans Spaanstra is not shown in this image.

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VB pseudo maker’s mark(#357), pseudo town mark Deventer(#548), MC (#230) pseudo maker’s mark, RS above 2 maker’s mark Rinze Jans Spaanstra

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MC(#230) pseudo maker’s mark, Frond (#410) pseudo maker’s mark, maker’s distorted mark of Rinze Jans Spaanstra, Dutch 2nd standard mark with export key, Running animal (#400) pseudo maker’s mark.

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VB (#357) pseudo maker’s mark.

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Lion rampant (?) (#650) Pseudo standard mark, top left maker’s mark Rinze Jans Spaanstra, Dutch Dolphin mark.
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D (#58)Pseudo year letter .

Tea set pseudo marks, dutch dolphin mark and little import mark Austria Hungary empire; AV in hexagon used 1891-1901
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MC pseudo maker's mark (#230), lion rampant (upside down) pseudo standard mark (#656), Fern leaf pseudo maker's mark(#410), pseudo town mark Amsterdam (#531), Running animal pseudo maker's mark(#400), C (upside down) pseudo year letter (#39), Star pseudo maker's mark silversmith Epke Hoytes, registered in Amsterdam and Bolsward, 1648-1661.



Yes pseudo marks can be deceiving. It would have made Rinze Jans Spaanstra very happy:
The British Museum metal detector find; Post-Medieval cast silver spoon bowl. Oval; rats tail end to stem extending roughly one third of the way down the bowl. Four marks stamped on the underside of the bowl; three around end of stem ('VB' to left, star/flower at end, crowned lion(?) (rampant to right) and one at edge of the bowl ('BS/2').
https://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts ... /id/434919
We know better


The pseudo marks used by Firma Gebr. Niekerk

In 1899 the silver factory firm J.P. Niekerk in the city of Schoonhoven bought the "steam silver factory" R.J. Spaanstra & Zn in Groningen. From 1899 to 1927 separate master's marks were registered for this new factory under the name; J. P Niekerk, and Gebr (Brothers). Niekerk with maker’s mark; N6S and NS6 used in 1899 only, JPN above 1 used 1899/1900, Fir 1 above JPN in square used 1900-1902, Gebr above-N- in square used 1902-1927 and the maker’s mark N2 in various forms.
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1st standard mark with export key, maker's mark JPN above 1 used 1899-1900

Wet fruit spoon/sprinkle spoon
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Above mark used 1900-1902
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Fir1 above JPN (J.P. Niekerk) for Gebr. Niekerk, pseudo year letter D(#58), Dutch 2nd standard mark and applicable year letter (double-struck) for 1901

Silver salver with extra pseudo marks:
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Year letter Z for 1909, maker’s mark N2 for Gebr. Niekerk, 2nd standard mark with export key.
ImagePseudo town mark city Hoorn(#583)
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Pseudo town mark Amsterdam 2 instead of 3 crosses (#531)

Silver basket
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N2 maker’s mark Gebr. Niekerk, 2nd standard mark with export key, pseudo Amsterdam town mark (#526)
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Assay office, regional assay office letter E for Groningen, with extra pseudo mark.

Pseudo marks used by Gebr. Roelfsema.
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R6 in a vertical rectangle with cut corner for: J. H. Roelfsema or Firma Gebr (Brothers) Roelfsema. Other known marks: R6.(dot) in a horizontal rectangle with cut corners and 3 above GR in a square. The brothers Roelfsema were located in the city of Winsum, province of Groningen. Registered from 1894 till 1910 known for silver purse frames, silver bible locks, small silver boxes and miniature silver.
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3 above GR maker’s mark Gebr. Roelfsema, under distorted W under crown (#367) pseudo year letter the Hague 1743, above pseudo maker’s mark(?), applicable 2nd standard mark silver, applicable year letter I for 1893, LM conjoined (#218) (turned right) pseudo maker’s mark Groningen silversmith Lambert Muntinck 1610-1654, three clovers (#431) pseudo maker’s mark.

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Silver miniature horse Merchants, 1896
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Pseudo maker’s mark(#474), II pseudo maker’s mark of Leeuwarden silversmith Johannes Jans II, 1667-1712, Acorn, (turned left)(#421), deformed pseudo maker’s mark Haarlem silversmith Andries van Akersloot 1718-1758.

Pseudo marks used by Douwe de Jong

Douwe de Jong maker’s mark DJ: and DdJ, registered Groningen 1899/1941
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Pseudo town mark Amsterdam (#536), 2nd standard mark silver, maker’s mark (distorted) DJ: Douwe de Jong Wz (Willems zoon/William’s son), IH (upside down)(#162) pseudo maker’s mark of Amsterdam silversmith Johannes Honing, 1798-1811
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Loderein/Scent box
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Distorted maker’s mark DJ:, pseudo Amsterdam town mark (#536), H Fern leaf a pseudo maker’s mark (?)

oel
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Posts: 3839
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Re: Dutch pseudo marks

Postby oel » Sat Oct 10, 2020 8:21 am

Province North Holland Amsterdam Pseudo marks used

Pseudo marks used by Antonius Jacobus Hendricus de Ruijter, registered in Amsterdam 1874 -1910.
Maker’s mark used; 3A above dR, 2A above DR and 2DR

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2nd standard mark silver, 3A above DR (upside down), year letter 1897,Minerva head rao letter A for Amsterdam.
Maker of heavy gauge baskets and miniatures
url=https://imageshack.com/i/pnBwqp6ij]Image[/url]
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Pseudo (?), distorted pseudo year letter Groningen (#327), I.B (#157) pseudo maker’s mark Jan Bonket, 1747-1789


Pseudo marks used by Jacob Feeterse.
Jacob Feeterse, registered in Amsterdam 1885-1921,first probably worked together with Antonius Jacobus Hendricus de Ruijter, later on his own and known to be a good “old style” engraver. Maker’s mark 2JF
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Two forged candlesticks, attributed to Jacob Feeterse, presumably Amsterdam, presumably circa 1900-1923, height 19.3 cm, diameter 14.9 cm, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam (Inv. No. BK-15707)
In the past, these candlesticks were attributed to the 17th century silversmith Thomas Boogaert, because it fills a gap in his oeuvre, which is mainly composed of religious objects. However, the hallmarks are too big and sharp to be real. They are unmistakably carved by one hand and differ in details from the 17th century marks. The candlesticks were probably made by the Amsterdam forger Jacob Feeterse. He worked between 1900-1923
https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/BK-15720-A
https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/nl/zoeken?p= ... jects&ii=0
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Fake town mark Amsterdam(#499), details in crown and size of the mark too big, fake year letter V for Amsterdam 1630, TB conjoint (#343) pseudo/fake maker’s mark of Amsterdam silversmith Thomas Boogaert, 1625-1653
Wafer box, cylindrical, crowned by lion with shield, Jacob Feeterse (attributed to), c. 1900 - c. 1923 with pseudo town mark Amsterdam, pseudo year letter V, TB conjoint
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Engraved beaker
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Pseudo town mark Leeuwarden(#586), I.M pseudo maker’s mark Leeuwarden silversmith Jan Melchers Oostervelt, 1611-1667, (#173), pseudo year letter P(#278)
Windmill beaker height 24.5 cm
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Pseudo year letter F (#103) upside down, RH monogram (#313) (upside down) pseudo maker’s mark Delft silversmith Reynier van Hasselt, 1654-1682, pseudo town mark Delft (#547) (upside down).
Goblet
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Goblet height 10cm, Clover(#418) pseudo maker’s mark Bolswarden silversmith Jan Sjoerds 1609-1657, pseudo town mark Bolsward (double headed eagle)(#540), pseudo year letter L(#205).

Pseudo marks used by Julius Postmus.

Julius Postmus maker’s mark used; J2P and J. Above PH, J.P.H, registered in Amsterdam, Alphen a/d Rijn and city of Hoorn, known maker of salvers, ajour cut silver baskets and silver miniatures.
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Maker’s mark. J. Postmus

Tea Caddy
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Pseudo marks
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Pseudo town mark Delft(#547), B pseudo year letter (#27), pseudo town mark Amsterdam.
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Year letter Y (Gothic)for 1908

Pseudo marks used Hendrik Preijer
Hendrik Prijers maker’s mark HP and H*P, registered in city of Hoorn, 1896-1909

Silver miniature, 3-part silver miniature coffee set - .833 silver
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Left to right; town mark Amsterdam, H pseudo year letter (#128), sailing vessel pseudo maker’s mark(#469)
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Pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#531), pseudo maker's mark(#483), H pseudo year letter


Pseudo marks used by A.F. Westerwaal
A.F. Westerwaal, maker’s mark A3W, registered in Amsterdam 1900-1921. Known miniature maker and small silver items.
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Unclear pseudo town mark Amsterdam(?), deformed pseudo town mark Haarlem (upside down)(#574), Pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#525)


Jacques Vos & Co. N.V.
Maker's mark V.S in double oval, registered in the cities of Haarlem and Den Bosch 1915-1920
Ornamental sifter/wet fruit Spoon
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Holland V.S in double oval
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2nd standard mark with export key, IB pseudo maker's mark (#156), pseudo town mark Enkhuizen (three herrings under crown) (#558)

oel
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Re: Dutch pseudo marks

Postby oel » Sat Oct 17, 2020 7:47 pm

Pseudo marks used in the Hague.

Most forgeries in The Hague were made between 1880 and 1945 by Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek, his son Arnold, and their successor Hendrik Poelman. Paulus van der Beek started as a silversmith in Friesland; in 1854 he settled in Workum, from where he moved to Franeker in 1877. In 1880 he left for The Hague, where he died in 1909. His business was continued by his son Arnold, who handed over his business in 1923 to Hendrik Poelman, the latter of whom worked until the beginning of 1946.
Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek, maker’s mark vd(conjoined)BA, registered in Workum/Franeker and The Hague 1854-1909.
His son Arnoldus van der Beek, in joined venture with Hendrik Poelman, maker’s mark AV(conjoined)B1, registered 1893-1923. In 1923 Hendrik Poelman continued the firm on its own, maker’s mark; AB1 in 1923-1925, and HP above 5 pointed star 1925-1946, HP 6 pointed star 1925-1946.
The firm of van der Beek at a later stage made such good forgeries that it took silver experts year of discussion and research to make final judgement, even today discussion is going on.

Pipe comfort, export key, import marks London by Samuel Boyce Landeck(SBL) in 1880
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1st standard silver 933/000 with export key, maker’s mark Paulus Arnoldus van de Beek; vd(conjoined)B above A (1854-1909)

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Pseudo marks; pseudo town mark Leiden(#?), pseudo standard mark (#653)
Extract book: Haags goud en zilver Edelsmeedkunst uit de Hofstad Jet Pijzel-Dommisse & Haags gemeente museum
A pair of Chestnut vases with pseudo marks The Hague 1780, pseudo maker's mark IT for Johannes van der Toorn II; Arnoldus van der Beek/ Hendrik Poelman

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Already at the exhibition [i]The Hague Silver of 5 centuries in 1967
at the Hague Museum doubts arose about the authenticity of the vases. Now almost forty years later it is immediately visible that there is a lot wrong with the proportions; they are too plump and rigid in shape, the body and especially the lids are pulled out too high, even the foot rim is too high in comparison with other chestnut vases. Moreover, the marks are counterfeit, they correspond to the hitherto known marks that have been used in Arnoldus van der Beek's studio. Van der Beek ( actually Hendrik Poelman) had initially provided the vases with his maker's mark AB 1 in a rectangle, later this mark was filed away and the vases became false by adding pseudo marks.
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IT pseudo maker’s mark The Hague silversmith Johannes II van der Toorn, 1771-1811 (#184), pseudo own mark The Hague (#568), pseudo standard mark The Hague(#637), J pseudo year letter The Hague 1780(#155)
True Marks The Hague 1780
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From; Merken van Haagsche goud en zilversmeden door Elias Voet jr of 1941

For comparison pair of original chestnut vases 18th century
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Silver-mounted box
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Walnut box with cover transparent horn
The box exudes a late 19th century atmosphere, not only because of the flat, almost mechanical engraving in a German regency style, but also because of the size and the material used. Very unusually, the box is provided with two complete sets of marks, both on the lid and on the edge of the side wall. The marks do not correspond to reliable Hague hallmarks, they resemble the false marks applied by Van der Beek from The Hague.
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Pseudo maker’s mark CR radish for Christoffel Radijs 1725-1782, pseudo town mark The Hague(#566), pseudo standard mark(#625), pseudo year letter S The Hague 1764(#326)

True marks The Hague 1763-1766
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Potlid
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The round lid is shaped like a lid on an oriental ginger jar (perhaps Chinese Export Silver). Unique, there is no comparable silver lid made by other Dutch silversmiths. The engraved Chinese decoration also has no precedents in the Netherlands. The marks in the lid are false and can probably be traced back to the pseudo marks used in the studio of the Hague master forger Arnoldus van der Beek.
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Pseudo maker’s mark The Hague silversmith Martinus van Stapele, 1757-1803, pseudo town mark The Hague(#566), pseudo standard mark(#625), pseudo year letter D The Hague 1775 (#67), pseudo French export mark ET under crown
For comparison the true marks
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Examples of pseudo marks from Merken van Haagsche goud en zilversmeden door Elias Voet jr published in 1941 /1982
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A. pseudo maker’s mark(#433), town mark, standard mark, Z(#387)
B. Pseudo The Hague maker’s mark(#450), year letter(#256), pseudo year letter L (#206)
C. ESL pseudo maker’smark Amsterdam Elisabeth Sluyter, 1767-1795(#100),.....B pseudo year letter Amsterdam 1786 (#23)
D. Pseudo town mark Amsterdam
E. Pseudo town mark The Hague, F pseudo The Hague year letter 1801(#104)
F. Pseudo town mark The Hague (#572), pseudo year letter D Amsterdam 1738 (#60)
G. FDK pseudo maker’s mark(#107).... P pseudo The Hague year letter 1737(#281)
H. ... P pseudo year letter (#277)
I. II pseudo maker’s mark The Hague silversmith Johannes I Logerath, 1726-1754(#165), ... X pseudo year letter (#376)
J. ........
K. Pseudo maker’s mark The Hague silversmith Martinus van Stapele, 1757-1803, pseudo town mark The Hague(#566), pseudo standard mark(#625), pseudo year letter D The Hague 1775 (#67)
L. ........E(script) pseudo year letter The Hague 1776(#92)
M. IT pseudo maker’s mark The Hague silversmith Johannes II van der Toorn, 1771-1811 (#184)..... J pseudo year letter The Hague 1780(#155)
N. Pseudo town mark The Hague(#573)
Be aware of pickpockets


Images of pseudo marks:
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Special gratitude source; Haags goud en zilver Edelsmeedkunst uit de Hofstad Jet Pijzel-Dommisse & Gemeentemuseum Den Haag

oel
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Re: Dutch pseudo marks

Postby oel » Thu Oct 22, 2020 3:57 pm

Schoonhoven

The pseudo marks found on Schoonhoven's silver mainly belong to the category of the imaginary marks, and do not mislead the connoisseur. Moreover, they were often applied next to the official Dutch assay office marks.
They were, perhaps jointly, used by a large number of silversmiths, and they are mainly found on souvenir items such as boxes, toys, small ornamental serving spoons and silver purse frames in the 'Old Dutch' design/style. A significant part of Schoonhoven's production was destined for export to England, and America, which explains the presence of the many strange marks. If one exported silverware abroad, the importing firm had to pay import duty fee on it. If the silver piece was older than 100 years, the import duties were lower. Schoonhoven silversmiths in particular sold a lot of silver abroad to the UK and U.S.A and mislead customs with these fantasy marks. The new "Old Dutch silver" was shipped in containers full to America and England. Hence the often seen export key attached to the Dutch standard mark. Export key; restitution of 2/3 marking duty granted for new or unused silver objects. This mark was always struck partially into the standard mark. Valid 1853-1953
The principal workshops of silverware using these pseudo marks were;
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Gerrit van der Dussen, maker’s mark D* and D109 and GD 109, registered in Schoonhoven 1866-1912

Willem Edeling
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Willem Edeling, maker’s mark W.E. and WE above *, registered in Schoonhoven 1896-1910 after he left for The Hague, registered till 1913. Pseudo marks H dot(#128), Anchor pseudo maker’s mark (#437), Sailboat pseudo maker’s mark(#468), pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#517)

Pieter Greup;
Pieter Greup (1834-1912), maker’s mark G111, registered in Schoonhoven 1854-1896 in 1896 he started, a joined venture with his brother Gerrit (1840-1936) and his son Gerrit (1863-1932) and his son Dirk Hendrik (1859-1939), Firm P. Greup & Zn (Son), maker’s mark G112, registered 1896-1913

Herbert Hooijkaas. Fa.(Firm) H. Hooijkaas 1874-2008; Zilverfabriek Schoonhoven. Maker’s Marks used:
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H13 in rectangle.Herbert Hooijkaas founds the company. In use from May 21, 1875 to June 2, 1883. Then renewed with the addition of a dot behind 13, in use until March 6, 1909
HH in rectangle. For big works. In use from March 6, 1906 to September 19, 1924

H in square. Herbert Hooijkaas enters into a general partnership with his sons Andries Dirk and Willem. In use from May 14, 1909 to September 19, 1924. Andries Dirk retires in 1921

HH with a dot on either side in hexagon. Herbert Hooijkaas withdraws, his son Willem continues the company. In use from September 19, 1924 to January 1, 1943
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HH with star on either side, in hexagon, 2nd standard mark, office mark / Minerva head with letter M for assay office Schoonhoven, year letter I for 1943. Willem Hooijkaas enters into a general partnership with his son Gerrit. In use from January 1, 1943 to January 1, 1947.

HH with a dot in between, and a star on either side, in hexagon. Gerrit Hooijkaas and his brother Herbert continue the company as a limited partnership. In use from January 1, 1947 to January 1, 2008

Mark for silver-plated objects. Bonnet or cardinal's hat, HH with a dot on either side in hexagon, and 90. This number is a measure of the thickness of the layer of silver that has been applied.
Source; Hooijkaas Schoonhovens Zilver in ambachten serie/1874-2008 by Tita Hooijkaas- van Leeuwen

Pseudo marks used by Hooijkaas.
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Left to right clockwise: pseudo town mark Amsterdam(#531), sailing ship pseudo maker’s mark (#469), H dot pseudo year letter (#128)
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Pseudo marks attributed to Hooijkaas; left to right, clockwise; pseudo maker’s mark (#483), 930 pseudo fineness mark(#397), pseudo town mark Amsterdam (#531), C pseudo year letter (#39), Sailboat pseudo maker’s mark (#468), 1st standard mark with export key.

Jacob Kooiman;
Jacob Kooiman registered 1860-1893, maker’s mark JK1, JK above 1 and JK above 1.
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Fern leaf pseudo maker's mark (#410)
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Running animal pseudo maker's mark(#400)
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MC pseudo maker's mark (#230)
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Willem Langerak & and his widow.

Willem Langerak, registered 1901-1925, maker’s mark WL* and his widow maker’s mark WL8
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Z pseudo year letter(#388), Flower pseudo maker’s mark(#423), WL* maker’s mark Willem Langerak
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Loderein box made by Willem Langerak
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Jacob Pieter Niekerk/Firma J.P. Niekerk
Jacob Pieter Niekerk and successors, maker’s marks used: N19 1862-1900, N9 used 1876-1900, N10 used 1901-1943, N20* used 1924-1943, and N20 in octagon used by Jacob Pieter’s widow 1900-1901. Between 1895-1940 the company was led successively by; Jacob Pieter Niekerk (1862-1900), by his widow (Firma J.P. Niekerk 1900-1902), by the brothers Jacob Gerrit Jan and Gerrit Jan Niekerk (1902-1912) and by Jacob Gerrit Jan alone (1912-1945); both last periods as company Gebr. Niekerk. In 1899 the firm J.P. Niekerk bought the "steam silver factory" R.J. Spaanstra & Zn in Groningen. From 1899 to 1927 separate master marks were registered for Schoonhoven and Groningen, under the name Gebr. Niekerk. In 1882, by King William III and Queen Emma, the firma received the predicate "purveyor to the court" continued until 1997.

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Willem de Pleijt
Willem de Pleijt, maker’s mark WP95 and WP above 95 used 1851-1878(died), his widow Anna de Pleijt-Den Haak, maker’s mark W.P. hammer used 1878-1892(died). The son Aart de Pleijt maker’s mark AdP used 1892-1896
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Gerrit Reijnen;
Gerrit Reynen, maker’s mark GR* used 1918-1935. He also had a shop in Rijswijk.
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J & J.C. Seton
The brothers Jan and Johannes Cornelis Seton, maker’s mark G’s S, G’s S* used 1910-1935, GS used 1910-1935 and GS3 used 1935-1956
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Pseudo marks without maker's mark and official assay office marks;
Six ornamental cast spoon of low quality
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1st spoon top; B pseudo year letter(#22), pseudo town mark city of Gouda(#563), 2nd spoon; Flower pseudo maker's mark(#417), pseudo town mark Gouda(#563) sailboat/ partly struck, pseudo maker's mark (#468/469), 3rd spoon, B (#22), IH pseudo maker's mark (#162/163) Flower (#417)
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Flower(#417), Cross, pseudo maker's mark (#465), Anchor pseudo maker's mark (#438)


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