Russian Gold and Silver Details

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Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Wed Aug 24, 2011 2:35 pm

Some interesting details from United States Consular Reports from St Petersburg and Odessa that were posted in 1902:



RUSSIA

GOLD AND SILVER MANUFACTURES

For centuries Russia has been famous for the beauty and design of its products in silver and gold ornaments. As far back as the eleventh century ancient literature shows that an abundance of beautiful objects existed in gold and silver, such as rings, earrings, vases, ornaments, and arms. It was not, however, until the twelfth century that the work in silver and gold became a national industry. In the fifteenth century the art had so far advanced in all that concerns metal articles cast or forged as to cause the establishment of workshops for the manufacture of embroidery, tinsel ware, gold-beating, and the regular goldsmith work.

The organization of the craft and the first legal regulation of the gold and silver industries date from the end of the eighteenth century. Following the example of the States of Western Europe, the basis of this new regulation was an obligation not to manufacture any articles other than of a good alloy, not to sell any articles which had not been tested by the State, and to pay a very small duty or tax called the "control tax." These regulations are still in force and they form part of the law of 1896, which is at present in force regarding that control.

The great favor always enjoyed in Russia by gold and silver articles, as well as the entire series of measures taken by the Government with a view of promoting the prosperity of this industry with the progress of industrial life, have assured and successfully developed this industry. In the actual situation of the gold and silver industry, by the variety of its products, the importance of its manufactures and the business to which it gives rise, the first place belongs to that Russian manufacture called high class ware, as well as to goldsmithing in the broadest acceptation of the term. This branch of industry produces articles of forms and qualities much varied, of articles cast, forged, chiseled, engraved, chased as well as cloisonne, of articles of stained metal, oxidized, enameled, and, lastly, of enamels which have no rivals. The larger articles and partly the small ones, also, have for a long time past been manufactured at Moscow, St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Odessa, Riga, at Kovno, and Berdichev in factories and simple workshops of artisans. The smaller articles are manufactured chiefly by the artisans in the large towns and by workers in families in the provinces of Kostroma, Moscow, and partly by the goldsmiths in the provinces of the Caucasus. Small and large articles of great artistic value, ornaments, as well as various objects destined for church service, are likewise manufactured in several important factories such as Orchinnikov, Grachev, J. P. Hlebnikov, Sons & Co., as well as others. These articles are not only distinguished by the beauty and originality of design, the fineness and elegance of the chiseling, but also by the excellence of engraving, the brilliancy and harmony of the enamels. Such artist goldsmiths as Faberge, Bolin, Bok, Ardt, Han, and others at St. Petersburg; Fould, Lombardo, Kuznetsev, and others at Moscow; Mankelevich at Warsaw; Machar at Kiev, and other goldsmiths established in different towns have long since attained the highest level of their art.

Articles in filigree, purses, earrings, pins, as well as articles of stained metal, belts, ornamentation of arms, decanters, etc., are manufactured by goldsmiths and sometimes by artisans working at their homes in the Caucasus. In 1899 this industry employed over 57 hundredweight of alloyed gold of a quality never below 583/1000 and 1,492 hundredweight of alloyed silver, the lowest quality of 875/100 and counted 5,000 establishments, factories, or simple workshops, giving employment to nearly 15,000 workmen and about 6,000 apprentices.

The second branch, which is the most important one in the Russian gold and silver industry, is the manufacture of tinsel. The production of tinsel, which makes great progress, comprises most varied articles. It furnishes the materials for an entire series of industries, such as gold embroidery, gold lace, galloon or crown lace, and brocade. The most renowned tinsel ware is that which comes from the factories of the V. Alekseyev Company and the houses of I. Veshniakov and Shamshin, which have found a large market, principally in the East. The silver tinsel of high grade and gilt-silver tinsel does not contain less than 979/1000 of precious metal. As regards the articles made of new silver, they usually contain 50, 40, and 25 per cent and the silver-plated articles contain from 0.16 to 0.02 of silver. In 1899 1 hundredweight of pure gold and about 137 hundredweight of pure silver were employed in the manufacture of tinsel. This industry, which is almost entirely centered at Moscow and the surroundings of that town, counts 8 establishments with workshops for spinning, with 836 laborers, and 120 establishments without spinning departments, but making galloon, gold tissue, and other tissue of a similar nature, which employ 628 laborers.

Owing to the importance and extent of its production, gold-beating comes next after the tinsel industry. This branch of industry produces under the name of " folier" extremely thin foil of forged metal which is employed for gilding and silvering certain objects and in the industry of tinsel. The principal centers for the production of folier are the towns of Moscow and St. Petersburg and the province of Yaroslav. In 1899 the 49 gold-beaters' establishments employed 300 laborers and used up 758 pounds of pure gold and 362 pounds of pure silver in folier. The lowest quality for the gold as well as silver used is 906/1000 it should be remembered, however, that Russia produces principally foil of high quality, of which the percentage varies between 937/1000 and 979/1000. The demand for the lower degrees of quality is supplied from abroad, and in 1899 the quantity imported was 289 pounds of pure gold and 74 pounds of pure silver.

Watches with gold or silver cases, as well as other articles of precious metals subject to the rules of good alloy (853/1000 for the gold and 875/1000 for the silver) and hall-marking and control tax, are not manufactured in Russia. Watches arc imported chiefly from Switzerland. In 1899 this importation consisted of 72,033 cases in gold and 294,624 in silver. The duty for hall-marking is levied per piece; it is 25 cents for the silver cases and varies between 75 cents and $1.50 for gold cases according to the size of the dial.

Moscow occupies the first place for the kind, character, and importance of the production of gold and silver articles. This town alone produces 38.3 per cent of the gold articles of various kinds and 59 per cent of the silver articles manufactured in the Empire. After Moscow comes St. Petersburg (articles of all kinds with goldsmiths' work predominating, 26.3 per cent, and silversmiths 14.7 per cent). Following the two capitals, the cities below named range in the order of the importance of their productions: Odessa, which city produces elegant jewelry at moderate prices, articles in gold 10.5 per cent and articles , in silver 1.5 per cent of the total production of the Empire; Warsaw, jewelry and goldsmith ware 4.6 per cent and 5.1 per cent in silver articles; Riga (various articles), 3.6 per cent in gold and 1.2 per cent in silver; Tiflis (filigrane and stained articles), 2.7 per cent in gold and 2.8 per cent in silver; the region of Kostroma (cheap silver articles for local use), almost exclusively silver articles and articles silver plated, 10.5 per cent. Kiev and Berdichev manufacture, among other articles, plated wares such as vessels and services. The other towns having a rather considerable production are Vilna, Kazan. Nahichevan, Toula, Nizhni, Ekaterinoslav, Saratov, Harkov, and Ekaterinburg, of which the production is inferior. In all of the towns mentioned foreign imports will be found, and there exist officials who are charged with the hall-marking and control. In 1899 the Russian establishments throughout the Empire worked up a total of 41 hundredweight of pure gold and 1,450 hundredweight of pure silver. The imports of 1899 (exclusive of watches and gold and silver bars) were 1,168 pounds of articles in pure gold and about 13,224 pounds in pure silver. The articles in gold and silver give rise to a trade amounting to over $15,000,000. All of the gold and silver used in the trade in Russia is imported in ingots from Hamburg, Germany, and bears the Hamburg mark.

Tariff of 1901.

Paragraph 148. Gold, silver, platinum, and articles made of the same (per pound).

(1) Gold in ingots or rolled into strips or sheets (except as mentioned in point 5 of this paragraph) free.

(2) Gold in all kinds of articles; jewelers' gold work without stones, and also with all kinds of real or false stones, pearls, etc., 66 rubles ($33.99), by conventional tariff, 52.89 rubles ($27.24).

(3) Silver and all kinds of alloyed compounds of silver (including compounds of silver and gold) containing over 2 per cent of silver in the total weight of the metal in ingots, powder, or rolled into strips or sheets (except as mentioned in point 5 of this paragraph), 3 rubles ($1.55).

Remark: The duty indicated in the present point (3) is levied on the Asiatic frontier of the Empire as well as on the European. On the frontiers of those countries with which special treaties have been concluded the levying of the same is effected in conformity with those treaties.

(4) Silver in all kinds of articles, even if gilt, jewelers' work in silver, gilt or ungilt, and all kinds or real or false stones, pearls, etc., 9 rubles ($4.04).

(5) Gold and silver in thin sheets weighing, per 100 square inches, gold 90 dolis or less and silver 48 dolis or less, including the weight of the immediate packing, 7.50 rubles ($3.86).

(6) Galloon and lace (gold embroidery) work in gold, silver, or tinsel; gold and silver drawn into wire and spun; woven or knitted ribbons in gold, silver, or tinsel, 10.80 rubles ($5.56).

(7) Tinsel drawn into wire or spun, spangle, etc., ornamentations, 3 rubles ($1.55). Remark: As tinsel drawn into wire will be considered ornamentation not made from precious metal, having in the kilo (2.2046 pounds) not less than 1,500 meters length (4,922 feet) and covered with gold or silver to the amount of not more than 2 per cent of the total weight of the metal.

(8) Platinum in strips, wire, or sheets, and also in all kinds of articles, 30 rubles ($15.45).

All the booklets of gold and silver imported must have on their covers the name of the master or manufacturer, number of sheets, and weight of metal contained therein, and only booklets furnished with these particulars will be sent to the establishments of control for testing and affirming of the prescribed marks and subsequent admission to circulation in commerce. (Circular of 1882, No. 13575.)

PLATED WARE

Warsaw is the principal center of the manufacture of plated ware in this country. There are ten establishments, which employ about 2,000 workmen. There are also a few small establishments situated in the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The quantity of white metal or melchior annually produced in Warsaw is valued at about $600,000, and the total value of melchior and articles of plated silver produced was estimated in 1897 at $1,500,000. This includes the articles of white metal and of copper plated with silver. It may be mentioned in this connection that on account of the great competition of melchior the articles of copper plated with silver are gradually going out of use. Melchior is imported from abroad and is electroplated at Warsaw and the towns previously mentioned. The plating is said to be very inferior and when finished very expensive. Replating is a frequent necessity. Owing to the high duty on silver-plated ware the difference in price between silverware in Russia and the imported English plated ware is about 10 per cent. Foreign plated ware is not imported into Russia in any large quantities, except, perhaps, watch cases from Germany.

Custom Tariff in February, 1892.

(1) Articles of melchior, brass, and similar compounds, besides knives and forks, if they are gilt or silvered.

(a) If the articles exceed 1 pound in weight each, per pound, 0.975 ruble (50 cents) plus 10 per cent.

(b) If the articles are under 1 pound weight each, per pound, 1.95 rubles ($1) plus 10 per cent.

Knives or forks, if gilt or silvered, or in valuable setting, per pood (36.1 pounds) 48 rubles ($24. 72) plus 20 per cent.

Plated ware is not manufactured in this consular district (Odessa), and statistics regarding the same for a full report on the production in this country and the importation from abroad could not be obtained.

OPENING FOR AMERICAN WARE.

The only obstacle to the introduction of the American plated ware would seem to be the high duty. The Warsaw manufacturers have agents for the sale of their goods in every important city of the Empire, and in most instances they own and operate the stores where the goods are sold

Thos. E. Heenan, Consul.

Odessa, June 3, 1902.


ST. PETERSBURG

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

The amount of plated ware exported in 1901 was 94 poods (3,403 pounds), valued at 940 rubles ($484). The imports for the same period were manufactured articles–silver, weighing 9,649 poods (348,330 pounds), valued at 7,445,000 rubles ($3,985,075); silver ingots, weighing 20,552 pounds, valued at 959,000 rubles ($493,385).

Russians are prejudiced in favor of silverware of their own manufacture, as each firm is compelled by law to stamp every article manufactured with the figures 84, as well as initials of the firm, heavy penalties being provided for fraud.

The Russians make a specialty of enameled work in silver, which forms a large per cent of their export in silver, the principal part going to the United States, consisting of punch bowls, cups of various designs, card receivers, cigarette cases, candlesticks, saltcellars, Easter ornaments, icons, ladies' belts, napkin rings, spoons, etc., which are known over the world and purchased in considerable quantities by tourists as souvenirs, because of their distinctly Russian character. The Russians also excel in the manufacture of special ornaments in silver, with miniatures of Cossacks, horses, sleighs, and implements of war. Dealers here say there is no demand for foreign silver or plated wares; that Russian designs are satisfactory, and as labor is cheaper here than in the United States the homemade article is preferable. The only way to introduce American silver or plated wares in Russia will be by showing superior designs and making satisfactory prices.

W. R. Holloway,
Consul General.

St. Petersburg, March 7, 1902.


Source: Special Consular Reports - Issues 22-23 By United States Bureau of Foreign Commerce, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor. Bureau of Statistics, United States. Bureau of Manufactures - 1902

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details - 1904

Postby dognose » Thu Feb 23, 2012 4:13 pm

From 1904:

On Hall-marks and Legal Standard of Gold and Silver

The law on hall-marks and legal standard of gold and silver now in force was confirmed on the 11th March, 1896 (called "probirni oustaf "). According to this law, all manufactures of gold and silver used in trade in Russia must not only be of the standards provided for in this law, but also have hall-marks impressed upon them according to regulations to this effect. The above law applies to all gold and silverware manufactured in Russia, or imported to Russia from abroad.

The legal standard, called in Russian "proba" is defined by the quantity of pure metal in the unit of weight. As the unit of weight in Russia is generally a pound, divided in 96 solotniks, the standard is expressed by the number of solotniks of pure metal in one pound of alloy. For gold there are five legal standards, termed–

(1) The 56th proba.

(2) The 72nd proba.

(3) The 82nd proba.

(4) The 92nd proba.

(5) The 94th proba.

According to the above specifications, there is consequently in one pound of the first standard 56 solotniks pure gold, and 40 solotniks alloy, of the second standard; 72 solotniks pure gold, and 24 solotniks alloy; of the third standard 82 solotniks pure gold, and 14 solotniks alloy ; of the fourth standard, 92 solotniks pure gold, and 4 solotniks alloy; of the fifth standard, 94 solotniks pure gold, and 2 solotniks alloy. In other words, manufactures of the–

First standard contain 56/96 parts pure gold.

Second standard contain 72/96 parts pure gold.

Third standard contain 82/96 parts pure gold.

Fourth standard contain 92/96 parts pure gold.

Fifth standard contain 94/96 parts pure gold.

For silver there are only four standards, termed–

(1) The 84th proba.

(2) The 88th proba.

(3) The 91st proba.

(4) The 95th proba.

The proportion of pure metal to alloy in the silver standards is clear from the above explanations.

Should the proportion of pure metal and alloy, when determining the standard of manufactures of gold or silver, fall between two of the above standards, the legal standard of the manufacture is the nearest low one. There are, however, some limits within which the alloys of a standard may fall without reducing the same.

For manufactures of gold of larger component parts, the limit for that metal in one pound of alloy is \ solotnik. For manufactures of gold consisting of smaller component parts soldered together, the limit is 1/2 solotnik in one pound of alloy.

Thus one pound of manufactured gold consisting of 55 2/3 solotniks pure gold and 40 1/3 solotniks alloy, would still be of the 56th proba; in the second case, 55 1/2 pure gold and 40 1/2 alloy would constitute the same standard.

For silver wares the limit is 1/2 solotnik in the pound, but can for some kind of manufactures be extended to 3 solotniks.

When determining the standard, the soldering metal is also taken into consideration, and the average standard thus worked out must not go beyond the mentioned limits. Another rule is that any part of a manufacture must itself be of legal standard.

Manufactures of gold of different English standards contain in one Russian pound the following number of solotniks of pure metal, and would therefore be of the following Russian standards :–

(1) 22-carat gold contains in one Russian pound 88 solotniks pure metal, and would be of the 82nd proba.

(2) 18-carat gold contains in one Russian pound 72 solotniks pure metal, and would be of the 72nd proba.

(3) 15-carat gold contains in one Russian pound 60 solotniks pure metal, and would be of the 56th proba.

(4) 12-carat gold contains in one Russian pound 48 solotniks pure metal, but would not fall under any legal Russian standard.

(5) 9-carat gold contains in one Russian pound 36 solotniks, but would not fall under any legal Russian standard either.


Manufactures of silver of English standard contain in one Russian pound–

(1) Standard silver (11 ozs. 2 dwts. of fine silver to 18 dwts. alloy) contains 88 4/5 solotniks pure metal, and would be of the 88th proba.

(2) Britannia metal (11 ozs. 10 dwts. fine silver to 10 ozs. of alloy) contains 92 solotniks pure metal, and would be of the 91st proba.

The hall-marking of silver and gold manufactures, as well as the ascertaining of their standard, takes place in the assay offices. Should there be no such office on the spot, the manufactures are sent to the nearest testing establishment. Gold and silver wares imported from abroad are sent from the respective Custom Houses to the nearest assay oflice at the expense of the owner. In the last case, a notification is sent to the owner to enable him to be present when the marks are impressed, in case he wishes to do so. If he does not present himself within a month, after having notified his wish to be present, the wares are hall-marked in his absence. To be accepted at the assay offices, the articles must have the maker's mark upon them, or, when imported from abroad, the mark of the Custom House where they came through. Should they be in an incomplete state, these marks must have been impressed in such a way as not to be effaced through the completing work. When the goods have been found to be of legal standard, they are marked with a stamp, and the standard (or proba) is impressed upon them.

On these occasions the following duty is levied:–

(a) On articles for decorations, household articles, or different utensils, and other manufactures–when of gold, 30 copecks, when of silver, 2 copecks for each solotnik of the total weight of the respective articles. Silver objects produced by handicraft pay only 1/2 copeck a solotnik.

(b) On embroideries–when of gold, 15 copecks a solotnik; when of silver, 2 copecks a solotnik. The weight in this case is ascertained on imported articles by weighing the whole thing, and articles of Russian production by weighing the metals used for the embroidery.

(c) On bars, ingots, or sheets presented as raw material– when of gold, 1 1/2 copecks a solotnik; when of silver, 1/10 copeck a solotnik.

(d) On manufactures containing gold and silver together, 16 copecks a solotnik of total weight; if an evident preponderance of one metal exists, the duty is charged as for manufactures of that metal (see above).

Remark 1.–On ingots containing gold and stiver together, the duty is charged as for gold, when this metal enters in the proportion of 3/4 in the ingot. Otherwise the duty is charged as for silver.

Remark 2.–The assay duty is charged on gold watches, when the dial is not larger than 33 1/2 millimetres, at 1 rouble and 50 copecks apiece; when the dial is larger than the above measurement, 3 roubles apiece. On silver watches, the duty is charged at 50 copecks.

If the manufactures of gold and silver are in an incomplete state, there is a discount of 3 solotniks in the pound when charging the assay duty on Russian products.

Should the articles be found not to be of any legal standard, they are returned to the maker broken up, in the case of Russian goods. In the case of imported goods, they are returned to the Custom House for re-exportation. The assay duty, however, is on such occasions to be paid.

The following goods are exempted from assaying and hallmarking and paying the assay duty:–

1. Orders and medals.

2. Antique articles, distinguished in an historical or archaeological sense, or as products of fine art.

3. Small incrustation of gold and silver in weapons, harness, and the like.

From hall-marking and paying the assay duty, the following goods are exempted, on condition of their being of legal standard :–

1. Mathematical or surgical instruments, and metallic frames of artificial teeth

2. Gold and silver manufactures of less weight than 1/2 solotnik.

3. Gold and silver sheets as raw materials.

4. Manufactures of golden embroidery.

Ingots and bars of gold and silver are exempted from hall-marking in the case both of Russian and of foreign production.

It has been mentioned in the section, "Passengers' Luggage," that some gold and silver articles are admitted duty free into Russia, on the understanding that these articles are for the personal use of the owner, and not for sale; as also when they belonged to the household articles, imported by persons intending to permanently reside in Russia. Such goods are not sent either to the assaying offices, but delivered direct from the Custom House to the owner, against receipt from the latter that they are not intended for sale; and in case they should be put up for sale, the articles would pass through the prescribed procedure both as to hall-marking and the ascertaining of their legal standard. (Circular No. 16552, 1896.)


Source: Russian commercial handbook: Principal points from the Russian law on bills of exchange, on customs formalities in Russian ports, on clearance of goods from the custom house, on stamp duty, on the Russian mining law, and on miscellaneous commercial matters, also comparison of Russian money, weights, and measures with foreign currency and English and French weights and measures - L. Norrgren - 1904

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Sat Sep 01, 2012 12:50 pm

RUSSIAN JEWELLERY

The Russian Ministry of Finance has just published two ponderous tomes on commercial matters, in one of which is given an interesting account of Russian jewelry. We consider this well worth reproducing, as it controverts many usually held opinions, and, coming from the source it does, may be relied upon:–"The working of jewels came to Russia in the nineteenth century. It began in Moscow, which, owing to its being the residence of the Court and grandees, was the principal centre of silver, gold, and jewel works. In the beginning of the eighteenth century there were in Moscow forty-three goldsmiths and 232 silversmiths ; among them were jewelers. Only in the middle of the eighteenth century gold and silver fabrics were organised in Russia ; these fabrics had a certain constant number of workmen on them, and articles in gold and silver were prepared not only to order, but as other market merchandise. Well-organised workshops, with a considerable number of workmen, were established at the end of the last century and the beginning of the present. The principal of these founders is Sazikov, who built his factory first in Moscow and later on in St. Petersburg. Owing to the choice of good models, to the careful execution of the designs of good artists belonging to the fabric and by others, and to the excellent finish of the work, Sazikov became celebrated not only in Russia but also abroad. The repousse work done by him always attracted the attention of experts and amateurs by the force of their relief. Mechanical apparatus and steam motors were first introduced in the Sazikov factory at St. Petersburg, where latterly seventy-five workmen were working and producing articles to the value of 150,000 roubles. Unfortunately this silver fabric had to be closed in 1880, after the death of the director. The enamelling of silver was very little known until about 1850, and the work previous to that time was imperfectly executed. This art began to be developed owing to the Moscow manufacturer Ovchinnikov, who founded his establishment in 1845. Later on he opened at his works a school with practical classes of drawing and of the science of silver art. The jewelry industry is principally centred in St. Petersburg and Moscow, where it has numerous representatives who possess well-organised factories. Some of them use machinery especially for stamping, in the manufacture of more ordinary articles. Silver and jewelry industries bear also in some localities a domestic character which was especially developed, and attained great proportions about the thirties, in the Government of Kostroma, along the borders of the Volga, in the village Krasnov, which is the centre of the trade, and partly in the village Sidorovskoe and in fifty (?) others which adjoin it. The peasants of some of these villages do not at all occupy themselves with agriculture and devote their whole time to the silver and jewelry industry. The articles manufactured by these peasants are sold over all Russia, not excepting the capitals, by middlemen who get them very cheap from the peasants and sell them at great profits on the market. A great many of these articles go to the Balkan countries, as also to Persia and Central Asia. The productions of the Kostroma
peasants amount to the sum of 700,000 roubles yearly. They consist not only of silver articles but also of those in copper and latten, which are sometimes gilt and sometimes only covered with a hard varnish ; all these are made by the same smiths and are therefore included in the same category. An enormous quantity of articles is made for the above mentioned sum, if it be taken into consideration that silver earrings with small turquoises are sold for 40 kopecks per pair and with artificial stones and strass, 23 kopecks, silver brooches, 75 kopecks to 3 roubles a-piece, and latten rings 7 kopecks each. In general, articles in silver are priced for sale at 33 to 35 kopecks per zolotnik. The price of latten articles is still more astonishing ; thus for example, crosses, a thousand pieces of which weigh two pounds, are sold at 40 to 50 kopecks per pound, rings weighing three-quarters of a pound per thousand are sold at 1 rouble per thousand, and if they are gilt, at 10 roubles per thousand ; earrings with beads and stones at 15 roubles per hundred, and simple earrings at 2.50 roubles,and so on. Investigations show that in the above region more than 15,000,000 pieces of different articles from silver and latten are made yearly. These consist of earrings, rings, brooches, bracelets, lockets, chains, and neck crosses, the greatest number of which form silver, latten and copper rings. In both regions, Krasnoselsk and Sidorovsk, more than 3,000 men work at these articles. This work is considered very profitable, although the pay to workmen is very low ; thus, for example, for the making of a hundred rings the workman receives 2.70 roubles, and for the same number of brooches, lockets, and pairs of earrings 6 roubles. It must be taken into consideration, however, that crosses, earrings,brooches, and lockets are made with the aid of handstamps. It should be noticed that all copper articles the workman must return to the merchant,who orders them by number, and silver wares exclusively by weight, together with the waste and filings. If there is some material wanting, the cost of it is deducted from the earnings of the workman, who receives for making simple articles six kopecks per zolotnik. The agents and the merchants, who are in constant relation with the wholesalers of large towns, watch for the appearance of new patterns, and such as they think the peasant workman can reproduce they send him, ordering him to reproduce them. Thus, the articles made by these workmen become more and more various. The many-colored glasses which often decorate rings, earrings, and other articles are produced and cut in the same villages; for that purpose white or colored crystal is used. Such glasses or stones when quite finished are sold at 1.50 to 5 roubles per 1,000. Lately these stones are being principally imported. Besides the Government of Kostroma, articles in silver and in copper silvered are produced by the peasants in the Government of Kazan, in the village of Ribnoi, where rings, bracelets, and other ornaments, worn principally by the Tartars, are made. The peasants work silver also in the Government of Vladimir and Moscow, and in the villages of the latter Government the industry is valued at 200,000 roubles. To the silver industry belong also the black enamel works. This business has been principally practised since ancient times in Veliki-Oustioug, Government of Vologda, where it came, according to tradition, from Novgorod, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Its special characteristics consist in the pretty shades and the durability of the black enamel, which differs much from that of Moscow. Now the industry has nearly ceased in Veliki-Oustioug, but is very much developed in Moscow, and especially in the Caucasus. The making of leaf gold and leaf silver belongs also to this category of industries. They are made in workshops and by peasants, who get the silver and gold in thin ribbons, 4m. long and 2in. wide. Such a ribbon, which weighs about seven zolotniks, is first cut into small square pieces, which, under the hammer, are gradually divided into many leaves, the number of which amounts finally to as high as 2,000, each leaf being of 12in. square ; they are put into a book of tissue paper, from 60 to 120 leaves in each. The production of leaf silver and of leaf gold is especially developed in the Governments of Moscow and Kaluga, to the value of 500,000 roubles yearly. As in Russia gold of the best quality, namely, of ninety-four standard, is used for making leaf gold, the qualtity of the latter in Russia is much higher than that of many other countries.


Source: The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith - 1st June 1894

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Mon Mar 04, 2013 2:10 pm

1866 British Parliamentary Report regarding the state of the trade Between Great Britain and Russia.

Report by T. Michell, Attache to Her Majesty's Embassy at St. Petersburg.

Summary of the Special Observations on the Russian Customs Tariff made by the several Chambers of Commerce of Germany.

No. 284. Fancy goods, valuable, as below are enumerated, 1 ruble the pound.

(a.) All manufactures excepting buttons (compare No. 285) altogether or almost wholly of ivory, mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, enamel, amber, coral, aluminium, and similar valuable materials. Here belong also opera-glasses, spectacles, eye-glasses, fine brushes, and shaving brushes, set in the before mentioned valuable materials.
(b.) All manufactures, with the exception of buttons of the forenamed materials, with ornaments of gilt, bronze, porcelain and the like, also with ornaments of valueless substances, so far as these are only subordinate.
(c.) Manufactures, including buttons, of every material, also of cut false stones, as agates, garnets, rock crystal, lapis lazuli, malachite, jet, and imitations of these, as well as of real stones, with ornaments and settings of gold, silver, or platina.
(d.) Ornaments, as bracelets, brooches, ear-rings, chains, watch-keys, and the like, excepting buttons, gold and silver plated, combined or not with valueless or real imitation stones, and the like; likewise similar ornaments of gold and silver, even if not solid but filled up with cement or valueless stuff, which does not permit the weight of pure metal being ascertained; gold and silver watch-keys, crayon holders, and pen holders, of which also the worthless metal inside prevents the calculation of the weight of the gold and silver.
(e.) Gold and silver spectacles and eye-glass frames, and finished spectacles and eye-glasses.
(f.) Fans of all kinds (No. 205, according to which they have to pay 25 per cent, on the value, would then be omitted.)
(g.) Feathers for ornaments, ostrich and "Marabout" feathers; stuffed birds of paradise and their feathers; feathers for plumes; plumage of every kind for ladies' and gentlemen's hats and bonnets, uncoloured and coloured, with the weight of the boxes in which they are imported. (No. 212, according to which they must pay 2 rubles the pound, would then be omitted).
(h.) Silk purses and ladies' purses, with or without embroidery and ornaments of any kind.
Note.–The articles enumerated in the Tariff hitherto existing, clause No. 284, under g, as "all kinds of articles with requisites for the toilet, needlework, likewise all kinds of portfolios, albums, pocket-books, cigar-cases, portemonnaies, purses, tobacco-pouches," are only to be classed under this clause when they chiefly belong to it, according to their materials.



Nos. 296-301. Manufactures of Gold, Silver, and Platinum.

Gold manufactures pay 30 silver rubles per pound, silver and silver gilt manufactures, 2 rubles, platinum manufactures, 15 rubles. Precious stones, brilliants, and real pearls, set in gold, silver or platinum, 2 per cent, ad valorem. If the amount of the duties is not to be attacked, still there are two circumstances which have for some time interfered with the once satisfactory sale of German gold wares in Russia. (The articles made at Pforzheim in particular.)
By a regulation of the year 1861 articles of gold, like those in use in Germany, must, on being assayed, contain 14 carats (= 56 zolotniks). In Germany, gold which is to be worked-up is generally 13£ carats fine; with the hard solder melted in, the finished articles, however, contain only 13 carats (= 52 zolotniks).
The merchants of Pforzheim, Berlin, Leipzig, &c, have therefore not been able to sell anything in Russia. Besides this, Clause 86 of the regulation mentions "at the same time it is strictly forbidden to fill hollow articles with anything to increase their weight." It is well known, however, that the lighter, cheaper articles of gold, which are principally exported, are filled up with a kind of putty, with sealing-wax, and the like, for the purpose of polishing and engraving, and also to give them greater strength for wear; massive gold chains are sold according to weight, while hollow ones are sold by their outward appearance. It is also desirable that an inferior fineness of gold of 12 to 13 carats, and silver of at least 11 loths, should be admitted. The following should be added to Classes 296-299 :–
1. In the foregoing enumerations only those gold, platinum, and silver manufactures are to be included which are wholly made of those metals, so that their value may be arrived at by their weight; on the other hand, all manufactures only partly of gold, or silver, &c, as (according to our proposals), enumerated under No. 284 e, d, e, belong to the class "valuable fancy goods."
2. The latter manufactures, partly of real metal, likewise spectacles and eye-glass frames, named under No. 284, and also finished spectacles and eye-glasses, may be of any fineness, and need not be stamped. Manufactures entirely of precious metals, on the other hand, must be assayed and stamped. –(Pforzheim, Stuttgardt, Berlin.)
No. 300. Lacework of real and counterfeit gold and silver wire, and spun gold and silver, is subject to a duty of 5 rubles the pound, a duty which only appears proper for lacework of real gold. Lacework of counterfeit gold and silver we have recommended to be placed under "ordinary fancy goods.'' For lacework of real silver, or wire-drawn and spun gold, a duty of 3 rubles the pound, for silver drawn wire and spun a duty of 1 ruble 50 copecks the pound should be sufficient.–(Fiirth, Offenbach, Munich.)
No. 301. Pure gold and silver leaf, also double gold in books, with the weight of the latter added, pays a duty of 1 ruble the pound; this should be reduced to one half.–(Ludenscheid, Berlin).

Manufactures of Plated Silver, German Silver, China Silver, Alfenid, Melchior, and other white hard metal compositions.

Of all the different manufactures belonging to this class, so extensively cultivated of late, the Russian Tariff only recognizes manufactures of plated silver, which it taxes with a duty of 20 rubles per pud (65 thalers 28 silvergroschen the centner), No. 295. The following classification is recommended to be made:–
(a.) German silver wire 2 silver rubles the pud.
{b.f Manufactures of the above-named metals, excepting those of plated silver,cast as spurs, riding and driving gear, carriage ornaments, &c, of rolled pewter, stamped, or produced by the lathe, as spoons, coffee-trays, tea and other utensils, and the same unfinished rough, filed or ground, but not polished, 4 rubles the pud.
(c.) The same finished, polished, gilt, or silver gilt, 6 rubles the pud.
(d.) The same, silver gilt, partly or wholly gilt, 10 rubles the pud.
(e.) Manufactures of plated silver, partly or wholly gilt, 15 rubles the pud.
Note.–Under manufactures of plated silver, only those which are really plated should be understood, that is, such which consist of silver plates rolled on to copper, but not those which are silvered by galvanic or other processes, which are to be rated under (d) of this class.
General remarks: 1. Small connecting parts of other substances, as feet, knobs, handles, &c, of wood, horn, bone, ivory, mother of pearl, do not exclude the rating under (b) and (c) of this class.
2. Boxes and packages, in which the above are imported, are to be rated according to their materials.
3. Knives and forks, steel, but with handles of metal enumerated in this class, are rated under it, and not as " cutlery goods."–(Berlin, Ludenscheid.)

Source: Report on the Present State of the Trade Between Great Britain and Russia: Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty - 1866

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Wed Jun 26, 2013 1:54 pm

TRADE MARKS IN RUSSIA

The regulations now in force regarding Trade Marks were introduced as long ago as 17th February, 1830, and are modelled after a fashion differing considerably from that adopted by most of the other European States.

Article XX. of the Treaty of Commerce with Great Britain, signed 12th January, 1859, provides that each of the contracting parties shall, within its own dominions strictly prohibit and repress the fraudulent use or imitation of Tradesmen's Marks originally affixed to goods, produced in the other country. By a declaration signed 11th July, 1871, it was agreed that the offering for sale of goods bearing counterfeit British or Russian Trade Marks should be considered an offence amenable to the British "Merchandise Marks Act 1862 " and to certain sections of the Russian Statute of Punishments and Penal Code. It also provided that British subjects desiring protection for their Trade Marks in Russia must register them at the Department of Commerce and Manufactures at St. Petersburg.

Trade Mark Treaties have been concluded between Russia and the following countries in addition to Great Britain :–Austro-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Roumania and the United States of America.

The employment of Trade Marks is not compulsory, except in the case of gold and silversmiths' work or metallic alloys resembling the precious metals. Russian goods bearing registered Trade Marks enjoy, however, some slight privileges : they are not subject to duty on re-importation to Russia, they cannot be confiscated by the Customs authorities when forming a portion of seized smuggled goods, &c.

A Trade Mark must bear on it the name and surname , or the initials of the manufacturer, as well as of the place where the manufactory is established. The Mark must be legible and durable in character and Russian letters must be used. Other characters may also be employed but under condition that a Russian Mark be likewise placed on the goods. Armorial bearings should not be introduced into Trade Marks.

Whenever a manufactory is established the manufacturer must, should he wish to protect his Trade Mark, deposit a specimen thereof at the Department of Trade and Manufactures and he must notify the same Department of any change he may from time to time intend making in his Trade Mark as also the date from which such altered Mark will be used by him. In the event of a manufactory being closed the owner must report the fact to the Department. The Department may object to any Trade Mark submitted to it for registration on account of its close resemblance to some other which may have been already registered, or it may be rejected on other groundsNo fee is payable on registration of a Trade Mark. Specimens of Trade Marks used by gold and silversmiths and jewellers have to be deposited at an establishment at St. Petersburg which corresponds to some degree with Goldsmiths' Hall, London.

The counterfeiting of registered Trade Marks or the fraudulent applications of such Marks to goods is a criminal offence and is punishable by deprivation of all civil rights and privileges and by exile to distant provinces of European Russia or by imprisonment in a House of Correction for from four to eight months; the damage sustained by the injured party being, moreover, payable by the convicted person. Various degrees of punishment. according to the gravity of the offences, are particularised in the Statute of Criminal and Correctional Punishments, amongst which a third conviction for fraud renders the culprit liable to deportation to Siberia.

The extreme severity of the penalties fixed by this Law unfortunately defeats the object of the enactment; it being regarded in Russia as obsolete and unsuited to the requirements of modern trade. Russian juries will not as a rule convict persons charged with counterfeiting Trade Marks or even of fraudulently using them; and this disinclination to convict in such cases arises from the circumstances above mentioned, that the punishment provided by the Law is altogether disproportionate to the offence.

The Government has for some time past been fully aware of the evils arising from the insufficiency of the present law in regard to the protection of Trade Marks, and new regulations have for some time been under consideration. These closely resemble the modern Trade Mark laws of other countries, and it is anticipated that the improved legislation referred to will shortly be submitted to the Council of the Empire and introduced without much delay.

The course to be followed by owners of British Trade Marks with a view to obtaining legal protection in Russia consists merely in presenting three sample Marks or copies to the Department of Commerce and Manufactures. This may be effected through the medium of Her Majesty's Consulate, an authorised agent or by the owner direct. If an agent be employed, he must be provided with a power of attorney setting out the names of the owners, their residences and place of business, the class of merchandise and description of goods to which the Trade Mark has been or is to be appropriated. A legalized copy of the Certificate of Registration must also be furnished if the Mark has been registered in England. This is not done in consequence of any legal requirement, but because the officials at the Ministry request it to be filed in order to guard themselves as far as possible against mistakes and fraud. The person who registers the Trade Mark subsequently receives an official certificate of registration, to which a specimen of the Mark is attached.

In case of infringement a criminal suit may be commenced, in which case information must be lodged with the Public Prosecutor who institutes official enquiry into the case and, if well founded, draws up the indictment and ultimately sustains it in open Court. The process however is tedious and, for the reasons already stated, seldom terminates in the conviction of the accused. It is probable that an action for civil damages would be preferable, both in point of expedition and efficacy.

A non-registered Trade Mark, whether native or foreign, may be adopted by other persons and become their property.

Poland.–In 1864 Poland was deprived of its administrative independence and in 1868 was absolutely incorporated in the Empire of Russia. A Trade Mark, duly registered in St. Petersburg, is therefore protected in Poland.


Source: Trade Marks: Notes on the British, Foreign and Colonial Laws Relating Thereto : Compiled for the Use of Manufacturers, Merchants and Others Interested in Commerce - George Gatton Melhuish Hardingham - 1881

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Jul 18, 2014 12:06 pm

Increase of the Russian Duties. –We are informed that the Russian Government has decided to adopt a " maximum " tariff on goods coming from countries which do not extend the "most favored" nation's rates–what that may mean we confess we hardly know –as we hear from the trade that British goods will be most affected. The duties on gold, silver, and platinum goods, watches, jewelry, and musical instruments will be increased by 30 per cent.

Source: The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith - 2nd October 1893


Gold Production in Russia. The official statistics of the production of gold in Russia in 1892 show that the output of the mines has been greatly increased by the improvement of technical appliances. The production of the precious metal has reached a total of no less than 2,601 puds, as compared with 2,382 puds in 1891, and only 2,041 puds in 1885. Taking the value of the pud on the average at 14,104 roubles, there is a total of 36,670,000 roubles, or upwards of £5.000,000.

Source: The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith - 2nd October 1893

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Mon Aug 04, 2014 1:43 pm

Campaign to Popularize Russian Jewelry

London, July 20.–A world-wide campaign to popularize Russian jewelry is foreshadowed by Litvinoff, who is one of the bolshevist delegates now at The Hague. The Soviet government still has many jewels which the delegates say have been nationalized and are worth millions of dollars. The Soviet representatives believe that there is a wide market for most of these nationalized gems once the people of other countries get to know of them. In order to make them known it is proposed to issue illustrated catalogs of these jewels in various languages so that people in distant countries can make purchases if they so desire. At least, so say the Russian visitors at The Hague who, travelers say, are arriving with plenty of money and rigging themselves out in good clothes cut by the smartest tailors of The Hague.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 26th July 1922

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Aug 15, 2014 4:32 am

London, August 15.–Despite the efforts of jewelry protective organizations of the United States to prevent the retail jewelers of that country being undercut by imported gems that have been smuggled through the Customs, there are some jewel merchants here who declare the Russian gem problem to be more or less of a "bogey." A gem dealer here with branches at Paris, Antwerp and Amsterdam says there are a lot of diamonds and other gems at Reval but that they are mostly of the unwieldy type, the stones being square cut and yellow– what are known in the trade as Capes, These, he says, do not sell readily in the British market. A syndicate recently went to Reval to inspect the gems on behalf of the trade here, the gem merchant says. Back of this organization was the Diamond Syndicate of South Africa which controls the prices of diamonds throughout the world. The gems that confronted the delegation at Reval, the dealer says, were of the type specially made for Latin races. There were showy, square-cut, semi-barbaric ornaments in pearls, emeralds and diamonds. For the few good stones that were displayed the Bolshevik agents asked such impossible prices that the syndicate did no business. It offered £3,000,000 for one lot but no business resulted, the London gem merchant says. Hatton Garden thinks it possible that Lenin may have a store of very fine stones laid up somewhere but the Russian gems that have so far reached here, the merchants say, are mostly on the semibarbaric order. The prices asked on these Russian gems gets higher all the time. A Hatton Garden dealer in diamonds says that the South African syndicate has unconsciously aided the agents in whatever transactions have been made since it has not disposed of any of its stock for about nine mouths which has given the Bolshevik gems a footing here. The bulk of these gems are not considered suitable for the general jewelry trade hence several dealers here are inclined to view the stories of the markets being swamped with looted Russian gems as being of no real importance.

Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 24th August 1921

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Sep 05, 2014 6:38 am

RUSSIAN GOLD

Great Britain to Grant Licenses for Export of This Metal

Washington, D. C, Aug. 4.–The attitude of the United Kingdom toward shipments of Russian gold from England to the United States, as affected by the recent decision of the British court in the gold test case, is described in the following cable of July 27, 1921, from Col. George Harvey, United States ambassador at London:

The London Board of Trade now takes the ground that the outcome of the test case demonstrates that no holder of Imperial Russian securities can successfully contest the soviet claim to legal ownership of the Russian gold reserve; and I am informed that the Bank of England will henceforth grant export licenses, on documents of title, for soviet gold without regard to the character of the assay marks it carries.

In further elucidation of the court decision referred to above, the following report of July 15 from Trade Commissioner W. J. Page, of London, is of interest:
A test action brought to decide whether gold rubles, forming part of the gold reserve of the late Imperial Russian Government and now brought to Great Britain by the agent of the soviet government, were attachable in respect of obligations of former Russian Governments, was decided by Mr. Justice Peterson in the chancery division yesterday [July 14, 1921].

The matter came up in an action by Arthur Grotjan Marshall, of Cheam, against Mary Grinbaum, of Bond Street, for a declaration that 7,500 gold rubles deposited with the Bank of England for safe custody were charged in favor of the holders of 5 per cent Russian State bonds of 1906. Had Mr. Justice Peterson decided that they were, the soviet government would have had the right to cancel the Anglo-Russian trade agreement. Mr. Justice Peterson, however, dismissed the action with costs.

Giving his judgment, his Lordship said that the defendant admitted that the rubles formed part of the gold reserve of the Imperial Russian Government, and that they were brought into this country by her as agent for the soviet government. The plaintiff claimed that the gold reserve of the Imperial Russian Government was, by ukase dated August, 1897, mortgaged to the holders of Russian notes. That contention did not seem to be well founded. The object of the ukase was to make the notes convertible. Apart from that, if any charges were created by the ukase of 1897, it was suspended in 1914 when, in view of the circumstances created by the war, the right to exchange notes for gold was suspended by another ukase.

The methods adopted by the Soviet Russian Government to render its gold reserves bearing the stamp of the old Russian Government acceptable in other countries, prior to the foregoing decision, is described by a correspondent in the Daily Telegraph (London) of July 12, 1921, a transcript of which, forwarded by Consul Irving N. Linncll on July 12, reads as follows:

The Stockholm mint has in the first five months of this year [1921] melted down 70 tons of Russian gold, as against 19 tons for the whole of 1920. The gold thus treated was supplied by the bolsheviki and consisted' of bullion and of ingots marked with the old Russian eagle, etc. The gold melted by the Stockholm mint is cast into blocks bearing the Swedish hall mark, which makes it acceptable in the United States and other countries.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 10th August 1921

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Sun Sep 28, 2014 3:51 am

The Paris Journal, commenting on the alleged theft by bolshevists of the valuable jewelry from the tomb of Peter the Great near Petrograd says that the robbers evidently did not dare to desecrate the corpse which, to their surprise, was in a state of almost complete preservation. The silver coffin of the Empress Anna Ivanovna was carried away, and from the coffin of the Empress Catherine the Great, who died in 1797, were taken a necklace and two rings of great value.

Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 28th June 1922

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Jan 30, 2015 5:19 am

The 'Evening Standard' caused a flurry here the other day with a scare headline story to the effect that the Russian Crown jewels and regalia had been smuggled into England by Bolshevist agents and were to he sold. Other London newspapers began to deny the story. According to the 'Evening Standard' all jewelers and dealers in precious stones have been warned to be on the look-out for the Russian gems, which are of fabulous worth and unique history. A British dealer in precious stones long resident in Petrograd conveyed the secret of the smuggled jewels to Britain, according to the newspaper. What actually has happened, according to those who claim to know, is that the jewels, which have been in the possession of the Bolshevists, have been removed from their hiding place. There is no law to prevent the sale of the Russian crown jewels in England, but it is not likely that the British government would sanction the sale. The present hiding place of the Russian jewelry is known to some of the authorities here. Some of the regalia left in the hands of the revolutionaries was disposed of during the Kerensky regime. The Russian jewels are of great beauty and the possibility of their getting hold of some of them kindled no little excitement among the dealers here when the story first became known. The jewels were in the Hermitage at Petrograd when the Bolshevists came into power. They include some famous diamonds and rubies. The Orloff diamond alone weighs just about 200 carats and has a notable history. The regalia is said to contain a ruby the size of a pigeon's egg. It was cut in rose form, with flat face below, resembling half a pigeon's egg.

Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 18th August 1920

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Jan 30, 2015 5:50 am

Washington Officials Claim That Smuggled Diamonds Recently Seized in New York Were Intended for the Soviet "Ambassador" Whom They Seek to Deport

Washington, Aug. 13.–It was learned at the Treasury Department and the Department of Justice today that more than 100 diamonds addressed to a "Comrade Martens," which had been intercepted by customs officials while en route from Russia to the United States are believed to have been sent to Russian Soviet emissaries in New York. Testimony to this effect has been introduced at the deportation proceedings against Ludwig C. A. K. Martens, selfstyled "Soviet Ambassador" to this country, it is reported. The diamonds numbering 131 in all, were seized on July 22 by the customs authorities in New York from a Swedish sailor, Nils Jacobsen, who attracted suspicion as he was leaving the Swedish steamer Stockholm.

It also became known today that details of a regularly established courier service between Bolshevik agents in Sweden with Soviet representatives in New York, by which large quantities of jewels have been transported for six months past, have been uncovered.

Customs Inspector Roberts arrested Seaman Nils Jacobsen July 22 as he was coming from the Hoboken pier at which the steamship Stockholm was docked, with a large envelope which contained three other envelopes, in the smallest of which were the diamonds.

The outer envelope, a transcript of the Ellis Island testimony shows, was marked "Comrade Martens for J. Anderson." Within it was an envelope marked "Hilja." This in turn held an envelope inked "M." The final and smallest envelope, containing the valuables, was addressed "C. Q." Besides the diamonds it inclosed a note to Martens requesting that he forward the envelope "C. Q." to a person whose name was written in code.

Released in custody of the customs authorities on bail of $5,000, Jacobsen said he had performed similar missions for six months, originally having been approached in Gothenburg. Sweden, by a Swede named Foglemark. Jacobsen said he was promised $15 for each package delivered. The packages were given to him in Sweden, said the sailor, by a Swedish customs guard named Erickson.

Jacobsen asserted that each time, following instructions, he delivered the package intrusted to him to Mrs. Anna Keinanen, a visitor to the rooming house conducted at No. 224 W. 82d St. by Mrs. Senda Escola, wife of John Escola, a chauffeur.

The sailor said that at times, in his presence, Mrs. Keinanen gave the packages to a "short, stout man," whom the Federal authorities have since claimed to have identified as Santeri Nuorteva, former private secretary to Ludwig C. A. K. Martens. Nuorteva several months ago escaped to England, whence he was deported to Russia.

Jacobsen deposed that he was instructed in Sweden, in event of Mrs. Keinanen's absence, to give the package to another woman. He refused, how-ever, and this other woman telephoned, in his presence, to the Flatbush residence of Martens. In response, Mitchell Safron, a clerk in the Russia Soviet Bureau, appeared and claimed the package.

In consequence of Jacobsen's testimony, Safron was arrested on a charge of conspiring to smuggle and was released in $3,500 bail.

Jacobsen testified to the facts given here in the deportation hearings before Special Commissioner Schell which were abruptly adjourned on demand by Attorneys Honiwich and Charles Recht for Martens for a recess pending examination of Foglemark in Sweden by a commission. The hearings are to be resumed next month.

On behalf of Martens it was stated by friends that the charges were absurd and were trumped up because the other evidence against him which the government had sought to elicit had failed to materialize.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 18th August 1920

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Wed Feb 18, 2015 8:35 am

BARS "SOVIET" GOLD

United States Considers Metal Sold by Russian Government in Light of Stolen Property and Mint Will Not Receive It–Warning to Jewelers to Whom Such Gold Has Been Offered.

Announcement was recently made to the effect that the United States Treasury had taken drastic action against the disposition of gold in this country owned and controlled by the Soviet Government of Russia and that as far as this country is concerned, all such gold will be considered in the light of stolen property and that it will not be received by the Government in any way and also that its import is forbidden whether directly from Russia or through any other country. The Treasury Department's ruling requires that all Government mints refuse gold of Soviet origin and forbids the importation of such gold from other European nations in spite of the fact that the gold may bear the markings of these other countries alone. According to the Director of the Mint, the mints and assay offices are required to refuse to accept all gold known to be of Soviet origin or which on its face or as a result of investigation appears to be of Soviet origin no matter by whom it may be tendered.

It became known last week that some of this Russian gold had been offered to jewelers at a discount, and the matter was called to the attention of the officials of the Jewelers' Vigilance Committee, which after an informal investigation, decided to issue a warning to the trade calling attention to the danger to any manufacturer or dealer who purchases gold the origin of which may be traced to the Soviet Government of Russia.

In speaking of this matter recently, a member of this committee said there was no doubt that some of this gold had been offered to jewelers and they felt that it was only fair that attention should be called to the action of the United States Government in regard to Russian gold that prospective purchasers of Russian gold may realize the fact that no matter how innocent they may be in the transaction themselves, they may be confronted later with litigation as a result of the purchase. The new regulations of the assay office, he said, were such that they require affidavits from all people offering gold to the effect that the gold was not of Soviet origin and the attitude of the Government seemed to be to go back to the source of the purchase of this gold beyond that of the person with whom the assay office dealt. While it is true that jewelers who buy gold have no way of telling the origin or know whether they are buying gold of Soviet origin or not, the mere fact that gold is offered at a discount should be sufficient to put the intending purchaser on notice and be in itself an element of warning that there may be danger in the transaction.

How strict the Government is in connection with the handling of Russian gold here, was shown in the experience of Israel Ludlow, president of the Ludlow Syndicate, Inc., 522 Fifth Ave., whose firm had recently been offered $5,000,000 worth of gold by a Paris exporting house. The gold bears only the markings of the Swedish Royal Government Mint and no other markings of identification, Mr. Ludlow said. In connection with this, he had made an inquiry to the Treasury Department as to whether the mint would accept this gold and in reply to his inquiry concerning the purchase, he received a letter from the Director of the Mint, saying that "the United States mints and assay offices are required to refuse to accept all gold known to be of Soviet origin or which on its face or as the result of investigation appears to be of Soviet origin, no matter by whom tendered."

Thereupon Mr. Ludlow wrote to the Treasury Department on Dec. 30 concerning the offer of the Paris exporting house, saying that the Swedish gold was not offered in trade for any material going to Russia, but simply as gold. No reply has as yet been received to the second letter.

How much Russian gold there is here, there seems to be no means of knowing, and how much is being offered to the jewelry trade and other gold users is likewise an unknown quantity. Members of the trade who are in doubt about the origin of gold offered them or to whom gold is offered at a discount would be wise to carefully investigate before they complete their purchase and might do themselves and their industry a favor by communicating these facts to the Jewelers' Vigilance Committee at the office of the secretary, A. L. Woodland, 14 John St., New York.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 12th January 1921

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Sun Aug 16, 2015 2:47 pm

RUSSIAN BLACK SILVER

Consul W. W. Masterson, of Batum, states that there are no manufacturers of jewelry, as the term is understood in the United States, engaged in the manufacture of novelties in jewelry in that part of Russia, but that there is made by hand in Batum in little shops novel and beautiful silverware called “Georgian work.” It is an inlay of almost black silver in fancy designs on the white silver background, and the work is used in spoons, cups and mugs, belts and buckles, tea sets, and in fact in everything in which ordinary silver is used. The makers of the ware profess to keep the process of making this dark silver inlay as a trade secret.


Source: The Metal Industry - September 1908

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Fri Dec 18, 2015 5:22 am

Report from Moscow Journal on Russian Gold and Silver Standardization

London, June 30.—A Moscow journal says that the project of a decree on the standardization of gold and silver has been adopted. According to the project the production of gold and silver; and also the possession of precious metals and trading in them is premitted everywhere within the frontiers of the Russian Republic.

The Assay control will be organized by the Financial Department which will form a body for the purpose. The project provides for the following standards: for articles in gold 56: 72: 82: 92 and 94; for articles in silver. 76: 84: 88: 91: and 95. False marking of metals and also the owners of shops where falsely marked goods are observed will be subject to legal proceedings.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 12th July 1922

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Sun May 15, 2016 6:16 am

NIELLO WORK

Niello work is simply silverware ornamented with engraved lines, which are filled with a black pasty mass and burnt in. The art of nielling is very ancient, and much of this work has been manufactured at Tula, Russia.

The lines may be made either by engraving or by stamping. The material used for filling these lines consists of sulphur compounds of silver, copper and lead, as well as bismuth, with an excess of sulphur, which seems to act as a binder to fasten the filling material to the surface of the silver. It is this adhesion of the mixture which makes it possible to represent artistic drawings in extraordinarily fine lines, finer in fact than can be produced in enamel.

The method of making the filling composition is as follows: One part each of copper, lead and bismuth are melted with nine parts of silver and an excess of sulphur; or two parts of silver, five parts of copper and three of lead are melted with one part of borax, in a crucible which contains 24 parts of powdered sulphur, poured out, and then again heated to the melting point. The molten mass is then poured into a large basin of water so as to granulate it, and afterwards reduced to a fine powder in a mortar. Finally it is moistened with a solution of sal ammoniac; and the pasty mass is rubbed into the engraving. Articles thus treated are heated in a muffle slightly above the melting point of the sulphide mixture, after all the high points have been wiped or rubbed down. The surface is then ground with pumice and finally polished.

The process is of Italian origin, and the name is from the Italian word for black or blackish. Specimens of the work are most uncommon and expensive in America, and we have never known of the development of the art in this country. The process is often reversed, and bright polished lines are produced on a black background. It is possible that this could be combined with etching and a new line of art work developed.


Source: Metal Record and Electroplater - January 1916

Trev.

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Sun Jun 26, 2016 3:51 am

The Japan Herald is the authority for the figures of gold output in Siberia from 1834 to 1887 inclusive—30,000,000 ozs., £120,000,000, and this with but little machinery, efforts rudely systematised, and stealage. When the great Siberian railroad, to which we have previously alluded, is completed from the Caspian Sea to Vladivostok, on the Pacific, the output of Russian gold will be greatly increased.

Source: The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith - 1st December 1891

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Thu Jul 28, 2016 2:40 am

A CHARACTERISTIC SPECIMEN OF RUSSIAN WORK

One of the most notable examples of artistic skill in precious metals is shown in the magnificent album recently presented by the municipality of St. Petersburg, Russia, to Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, of Brooklyn, and Dr. Louis Klopsch, of New York city. These gentlemen, one the editor, the other the publisher of The Christian Herald, a well-known and widely circulated religious weekly paper, succeeded in raising a cargo of breadstuffs for the Russian famine sufferers, which they conveyed to Russia on the steamer Leo. After a series of brilliant receptions and entertainments in their honor, following upon the distribution of the cargo, they were presented by the municipality of the Russian capital with the costly souvenir which is illustrated on this page.

Image

The album as unique in design and chastely beautiful in execution. The front is a heavy cover of solid silver, wrought into a harmonious design which greatly relieves the massive appearance. Engraved on the surface is the inscription ;

TO THE CHRISTIAN HERALD,
REPRESENTED BY REVEREND
T. DEWITT TALMAGE D.D.
ITS EDITOR AND
LOUIS KLOPSCH PROPRIETOR ;
FROM THE CITY OF ST. PETERSBURG, 1892.


Within, the album contains the presentation address of Mayor Prokofiew and the Common Council of Petersburg to the distinguished visitors, with the signatures appended, and on the opposite page is a charming aquarelle, representing a view of the Winter Palace and the Neva Quay, by the famous Russian artist Lytkin. The album is characteristic, both as a specimen of Russian skill and also as the only testimonial that has been received in this country from Russia in acknowledgment of American aid.

It is worth recording, also, in this connection, that it was through Dr. Talmage, as editor of The Christian Herald, that the Czar at his Imperial Palace, at Peterhof, personally conveyed his thanks to the American people for their kindness to the Russian nation in its time of trial and suffering.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular and Horological Review - 23rd November 1892

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Mon Nov 28, 2016 7:13 am

Last year the mines operated by the Treasury Department of the Russian Government produced 15,072 ounces of gold from the Tomsk district and 12,984 ounces from the Siberian steppe mining district. This was an increase of 2,068 ounces over the production of 1905.

Source: The Metal Industry - July 1907

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Re: Russian Gold and Silver Details

Postby dognose » Wed Apr 12, 2017 11:40 am

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF INDUSTRIAL ART FOR METAL AND STONE PRODUCTS AT ST. PETERSBURG

We have received from Baron R. M. Sternberg, Russian Consul-General in London, 17, Great Winchester Street, EC, 8. copy of the rules and classification of the first International Exhibition of Industrial Art for Metal and Stone Products, to be held at St. Petersburg under the patronage of H.I.H. the Grand Duchess Elisabeth Mawrikiewna. The exhibition will be held in the buildings of the Passage, 48, Nevsky Prospect, and will be opened for at least two months between November 15th/28th, 1903, and Febiuary 10th/24th, 1904. There will be three sections, the first two consisting of products of Russian and foreign artistic industry respectively, both of which will comprise the following nine classes :—precious stones jewellery; artificial stones jewellery; works of art in stone havin some value; sculpture, carved stones, engaving on stones; mosaic work of natural and artificial stones; gold, silver, plating work and artistic imitations; works of art in common metals and alloys; works of art in metals with inlaid work, enamelling, niello, &c.; and church goods, shrines of sacred pictures and church ornamentation. The third section, for oriental artistic industry, consists of three classes, viz. :——works of art in metal; works of art in stones; and works of art in metals and stones. Full information concerning the exhibition may be obtained at the Russian Consulate-General as above.


Source: The Chamber of Commerce Journal - September 1903

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