Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks
• • •
Silver Facts

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Silver as an Element:
28
Ni
Nickel
29
Cu
Copper
30
Zn
Zinc
46
Pd
Palladium
47
Ag
Silver
48
Cd
Cadmium
78
Pt
Platinum
79
Au
Gold
80
Hg
Mercury

Names:

English: Silver
French: Argent
German: Silber
Italian: Argento
Latin: Argentum
Spanish: Plata

 

Basic Information:

Symbol: Ag
Atomic number: 47
Group number: 11
Mass: 107.868
Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3
Atomic volume: 10.3 cm3/mol
Melting Point: 961.93 C (1235.1 K)
Boiling Point: 2212 C (2428 K)
Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 250.580 kJ/mol
Number of Protons/Electrons: 47
Number of neutrons: 61
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Face-centered Cubic
Color: silver
Hardness: 3.25 mohs
Characteristics: soft, ductile, tarnishes

Structure of atom:

Number of shells: 5

Atom arrangement:

1. first shell - 2
2. second shell - 8
3. third shell - 18
4. fourth shell - 18
5. fifth shell - 1

Oxidation:


Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Minimum oxidation number: 0
Maximum oxidation number: 3
Minimum oxidation state: 0
(silver occurs naturally in ores in its elemental state)
Maximum oxidation state: 3
(the unit cell of silver oxide, Ag4O4, has two atoms
of univalent silver and two atoms of trivalent silver)

Half Lives:

IsotopeHalf Life
Ag10541.3 days
Ag105m7.2 minutes
Ag106m8.4 days
Ag107stable
Ag1082.4 minutes
Ag108m130 years
Ag109stable
Ag109m39.8 seconds
Ag11024.6 seconds
Ag110m249.8 days
Ag1117.47 days

 

Energies:


1st ionization energy: 731 kJ/mole
Electronegativity: 1.93
2nd ionization energy: 2073.5 kJ/mole
Electron affinity: 125.6 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy: 3360.6 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.235 J/gK
Heat atomization: 284 kJ/mole atoms

Reactions:


With air: mild, =>Ag2O
With 6M HCl: none
With 6M HCl: none
With 15M HNO3: mild, =>AgNO3

Other Forms:


number of isotopes: 2
hydride(s): none
oxide(s): Ag2O
chloride(s): AgCl

Radius:


ionic radius (2- ion): pm
ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 144 pm
ionic radius (1+ ion): 129 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 108 pm
ionic radius (3+ ion): 89 pm

Conductivity:


Thermal conductivity: 429 J/m-sec-degC
Electrical conductivity: 630.5 1/mohm-cm
Electrical resistivity: 1.467 X 10-8 ohms-m (OoC)
Polarizability: 7.9 A^3

Abundance:

Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with
gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals
including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other
sulfides and tellurides.
Relative abundance in solar system: -0.313 log
Abundance earth's crust: -1.2 log

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