Thank you! Yes, this helps a lot. I am confused by, as it looks like, the different information about these marks. The writers can’t be all be right. A few examples:
Beuque, E., Platine, Or et Argent, Dictionnaire des Poinçons, officiels français & étrangers, anciens & modernes de leur création (XIV e siècle) à nos jours, Tome I, Paris 1928. See page 132, number 1.173 compass: garantymark for small articles from Besançon and page 133, number 1.188 hourglass: garantymark for bigger work uit Besançon: gold .750 and silver .800.
Carré, L., A guide to old French plate, Londen, 1931. See page 201. In use from June 19, 1798, until August 31, 1809. The small Besancon mark for clocks and watches, gold and silver ( the hourglass) and the large Besancon mark for clocks and watches, gold and silver.
Dongen Van, C.B. en Nieman, G., Keurtekens op zak: historisch overzicht van belasting- en waarborgtekens op edelmetalen voorwerpen vanaf 1795, Rotterdam 1998. Page 26. In use from 1794 until 1806. Gold .750 and silver .833. The marks were aproved by the ‘Comité du Salut Public’ allready in 1794. Together with the French annexation of Genève in 1806 and the installation of the garanty-office in Genève, these marks were replaced by the common French marks (with taxes). The marks kept their worth for a longer time. In the Netherlands until 1816.
Markezana, Y., Les Poinçons Français d’Or, d’Argent, de Platine de 1275 a nos jours, Paris 2005. Page 91. In use from 1798 until 1809.
Tardy, International Hallmarks on Silver, reprint, South Croydon 2014. Introduced on 16 priarial an II. Repealed on 12 priarial an XIII. Page 187: On 16 Priarial an II (4th June), 1794 a decree was issued by the ‘Comité de Salut Public’ concerning watch-making in the Départements of the Doubts and the Jura; it allowed free trade in gold and silver cases bearing the marks of the clock and watch-making industry. In those days checking the fineness of gold and silverware was relegated to the background.
So, who is right and who is wrong?