Dutch silver hallmarks and date letter chard 1814-2009

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oel
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Dutch silver hallmarks and date letter chard 1814-2009

Postby oel » Mon Feb 25, 2013 10:56 am

The hallmarks used during: aftermath of French Empire (1804-1815) & United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1830) and todays Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1830 . The period of the guilds before the year 1804.

Ref:
Elias Voet, Jr., Nederlands Goud- & Zilvermerken,
Karel A. Citroen, Dutch Goldsmiths' and Silversmiths' Marks and Names prior to 1812,
Karel A. Citroen, Amsterdamse Zilversmeden en hun merken.
L.B. Gans goud-en zilvermerken van Voet.
W. Koonings De keuring van goud en zilver tijdens het Koninkrijk Holland
World Hallmarks Europe 19th to 21st centuries
Waarborgholland, ˜Netherlands' Responsibility Marks since 1797
Janjaap Luijt, Het zilver Lexicon & other publications
Valse Zilvermerken in Nederland K.A. Citroen

Jan Schipper http://www.zilverstudie.nl

Dutch silver hallmarks and date letter chard 1814-2009

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To enhance click on image twice.
The date or year letter; to identify the assayer on duty under whose responsibility the assay test took place to determine the legal silver standard.
Rule of thumb; date letter always in combination with maker's mark and standard or fineness mark and assay office mark or Minerva head with a regional assay office identification letter in its helmet.
The first clear marking rules were laid down in art. 33 to 38 of the General Service Order of February 1st 1814, with the following principles:
- As far as practicable all objects must be provided with the three marks or responsibility marks; maker's mark, office mark and date letter to identify which assayer was on duty.
- All parts of objects will be marked as far as practicable to prevent fraud by connection of other parts. Such can be conveniently done, when the pieces have been made to one of the legal standards of fineness, by spreading the three marks. One shall place the date letter near the large or medium hallmarks. If there remain unmarked pieces, in this case these shall be provided with the small marks: the sword mark for small work.


Standard marks silver used 1814-1953 (Arabic numeral) and Office mark mark used 1814-1905-1906-present.

Standard marks guarantee the minimum overall fineness. For example if the assayer finds an overall fineness of .875, the assayer will mark it with 2nd standard mark guaranteeing minimum .833 or Sword mark, standard mark for small silver objects


Lion Rampant 1 for .934 fineness or 93.4% pure silver

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V.K. within G or horseshoe, frame 2 conjoined vases for; Gerritsen & van Kempen n.v. Zeist around 1926/? (1961). Lion Rampant 1 for 934 fineness, Assay Office mark used 1906- present, with letter B in its helmet for the regional assay office of Utrecht., date letter V for the year 1930

Lion passant 2 for .833 fineness or 83.3% pure silver

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Image from left to right.
VA under a Crown for: van Arcken & Co registered in Batavia & Soerabaja ( Former Dutch Indies) registered from 1889 /?. Retailers.
VK under a crescent moon between two dots, makers mark for: Firm J.M van Kempen & Zonen, located in the city of Voorschoten , this mark used 1858/1924
Lion passant above 2: standard mark silver .833 fineness (1814-1953) with export key: mark to indicate 2/3 duty restitution upon export valid 1853 till 1953.Image
Minerva head or office mark with the regional assay office letter C in its helmet for the assay office of The Hague.
Date letter h for 1892


Standard marks silver used 1953 - Present (Roman numeral) and Office mark 1906-present


Lion Rampant I for .925 fineness or 92.5% pure silver

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Lion Passant II for .835 fineness or 83.5% pure silver

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CS 3 (in rolling pin shaped frame) for; C.A. Stout, Rotterdam mark used 1961/2002. Lion Passant II for silver 835 fineness. Assay office mark with the letter D in its helmet for regional assay office of Rotterdam. Date letter S for 1978

Lion Couchant III for .800 fineness or 80% pure silver introduced in 1987


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Office mark or Minerva head 1814-1905 & 1906-Present
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Regional Assay Office identification letters

A - Amsterdam closed 1988
B - Utrecht closed 1986
C - The Hague ('s-Gravenhage) closed 1988
D - Rotterdam closed 1988
E - Groningen closed 1927
F - Leeuwarden closed 1984
G - Zwolle closed 1878
H - Arnhem closed 1970
I - Breda closed 1875
J - Joure opened 2002
K - Den Bosch ('s-Hertogenbosch) closed 1986
L - Middelburg closed 1889
M - Schoonhoven closed 1987
N - Maastricht, the letter M used 01-03-1842/11-01-1844, assay office closed in 1927
0 - Roermond closed 1868
P - Alkmaar closed 1924
Q - Roosendaal closed 1927
R - Gouda opened 1988



The Sword Mark
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The sword (used1814-1905) and 2nd sword mark used 1906-1953. Standard mark for; small work silver minimum 833 fineness= 83.3% pure silver and used on small work without date letter and office mark and in combination with maker's mark. NB. This sword mark also used on large work consisting of more than three parts interconnected by links or hinges. On these objects the office mark, standard mark and date letter were spread, one per part, the remaining parts were struck with the sword mark.
Two different swords have been used and hard to keep apart. In 1953 the sword mark with numeral fineness introduced.

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The Duty marks:

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The Boars head or the 1831 duty mark, this mark is of two sizes. It did not give any guarantee on precious metal content. It has been used as a duty mark on metal with a gold or silver content of 250 minimum. This mark was destined for all imported, unmarked and invalid marked objects of foreign, national and unknown origin. The big sized Boars head used 1831-1855 and the small Boars head used 1831-1893


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The hatchet, the 1853 duty mark for old silver objects of national origin returned to the trade. In accordance with several resolutions with further clarifications, this mark was intended for objects with the hallmarks of the ancient Netherlands silversmiths companies.The use of this mark was abolished in 1927 for two reasons: 1st . The lack of knowledge of the old marks has caused this mark to be sometimes struck on old foreign objects. 2nd. this mark had often been counterfeited and used to give objects an antique aura. The difference with the older French hatchet mark: The French mark was struck tax free on objects with valid hallmarks.



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The Dolphin mark
The Dutch dolphin mark; the 1859 duty mark for new unguaranteed objects of national origin. This mark was used on all new silver objects below legal standard of fineness, those with non-precious metal additions, and on new heavily gold or silver plated objects, as long as the average precious metal content after melting with the base metal was at least 250/1000. It was also struck on rejected objects which had been submitted at lowest standard of fineness. In that case the maker had to choose between destruction or unguaranteed marking. This mark was sometimes also mistakenly used on old and foreign objects. Dolphin mark used from 1859-1893 and valid from 1859 till 1953.

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Dolphin mark used 1893-1905 and valid 1893 till 1953. ( The 1953 Dutch marks renewal act)


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Crowned V for large items; duty mark for foreign and other untaxed objects used 1814-1893. This duty mark does not give any guarantee of a precious metal standard of fineness. This mark has been used on metal with a 250 minimum silver content as a duty mark. This mark was destined for all imported, unmarked and invalid marked objects of foreign, national and unknown origin. Upon the invalidation of the hallmarks of Louis Napoleon's kingdom of Holland and those of the French Empire in 1816, this mark also has been used as a tax free census mark.
The small flowery like V used 1814-1831 but also used in the Southern Netherlands from 1817 until 1832 after the Belgian revolution replaced by the Boars head.


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Dutch script-letter V; duty mark for imported gold and silver objects, the V for the Dutch word ˜vreemd" which translate to foreign. The mark gives no guarantee of standard of fineness. It was intended for imported objects only. It was however sometimes by mistake used on old objects of national origin.Used 1906-1953



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The script-letter S and script -letter I
The script-letter S used 1853-1859; Duty mark for unguaranteed standard of fineness new silver objects of national origin. This mark was used on all new Netherlands silver objects below legal standard of fineness, those with non-precious metal additions, and new heavily silver plated objects, as long as the average precious metal content after melting with the base metal was at least 250/1000. It was also struck on rejected objects which had been submitted at lowest legal standard of fineness. In that case the maker had to choose between destruction or unguaranteed marking. This mark was sometimes mistakenly used on old and foreign objects. Valid from 1853 till 1953.

The script-letter I used 1906-1953; Duty mark for unguaranteed standard of fineness new silver objects of national origin. This mark was used on all new Netherlands silver objects below legal standard of fineness, those with non-precious metal additions, and new heavily silver plated objects, as long as the average precious metal content after melting with the base metal was at least 250/1000. It was also struck on rejected objects which had been submitted at lowest legal standard of fineness. In that case the maker had to choose between destruction or unguaranteed marking. This mark was sometimes mistakenly used on old and foreign objects and in 1927 also used on objects of old national origin. Valid from 1906 till 1953.


Import duty Marks used 1893-1905:
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The 1953 marks renewal
- Abolition and invalidation of all duty marks, including those for unguaranteed objects of national origin.
- Introduction of the Z marks for objects which are submitted in finished condition, which consequently could then not be assayed as thoroughly
- Small marks for 800 standard of fineness silver, initially only for watch cases, in 1987 permitted for all silver objects.

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The; ZI (925 fineness) ZII(835 fineness) and Z(800 fineness)

oel
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During the French occupation or Napoleonic era

Postby oel » Tue Feb 26, 2013 9:58 am

In 1795 The Dutch Republic or the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (The Low Countries) and The Austrian Netherlands, the Prince Bishopric of Liege, Luxemburg and the present Limburg province are conquered and occupied by the French armies and are annexed by the French Republic.
In 1795 Proclamation of the Batavian Republic 1795-1806, a French satellite state and the hallmarks of the French Republic (1795-1804) were introduced. In 1806 the self crowned emperor Napoleon Bonaparte forces the Batavian Republic to accept his brother Louis as King of Holland, Kingdom of Holland 1806-1810. In 1810 Napoleon unhappy with his brother Louis, Napoleon decides to annexe the Kingdom of Holland and to become part of the so called French Empire (1804-1815). In 1813 Napoleons defeat at Leipzig and November 1813 partly liberation of the Low Countries followed by a few years of turmoil and Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo in 1815.

In 1798 the Dutch guilds which existed for ages, were declared abolished but temporarily remain in existence as destroyed guilds until 1807 with the total dismantling of the guilds, and the introduction of office marks and uniform date letter.


Hallmarks of the Kingdom of Holland introduced 1807-1812

The uniform year letters used by all assay offices.
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a used 1807+1808 b 1809 c 1810 and d 1811+1812

The standard marks:
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The Crown for 11 Penningen & 5 grein or 934.028 fineness and 10 for 10 Penningen or 833.33 fineness

The Office marks
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from left to right:
Den Bosch, de Grave, Breda, Bergen op Zoom, Aurich, Emden, Leer, Jever and Norden

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from left to right:
Rotterdam, Delft, Dordrecht, Gorinchem, Gouda, Middelburg, Goes and Zierikzee

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from left to right:
Meppel, Deventer, Zwolle, Steenwijk, Campen, Arnhem, Zutphen and Nijmegen

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from left to right:
Utrecht, Schoonhoven, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Hoorn, Enckhuizen, Leijden and The Hague

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from left to right:
Winschoten, Groningen, Heereveen, Sneek, Bolsward, Harlingen, Leeuwarden and Dokkum

Duty Marks
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Crowned O and B for articles with old hallmarks of the Guilds
Crowned V for imported articles.

In March 1807, by order of the King of Holland, a new hallmark law on the working, importing and sale of gold and silver objects, including the levy of duty on the same was implemented. Silver smiths, retailers and silver- shop holders could, for a few weeks, bring in their old hallmarked and previous made silver & gold objects and have those objects stamped with the crowned O, the capital letter O for the Dutch word 'Onbelast=dutyfree; free of charge and no tax Duty.
After this period, a tax duty had to be paid and the crowned B was applied, the capital letter B for the Dutch word 'Belasting'=Tax. After the 18th of April 1807, officially no work with old hallmarks was allowed to be sold without the crowned O, unless tax was paid and the object stamped with the crowned B. NB. Many variations of the crowned O were used in this short period and the crowned O often has been faked for duty dodging and other reasons. Sometimes we see the crowned B in combination with the crowned V for foreign/imported articles. All duty and import mark give no guarantee of the standard or fineness of the silver/gold used.



We also can find an import and duty mark of the French Empire 1809-1819.

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The small &=ET= etranger=foreign. This mark also used as tax free census mark, without guarantee on the standard of fineness. This mark also occurs rather frequently on objects bearing the older marks of Dutch guilds and the duty marks of the Kingdom of Holland, and the 1807-1812 Kingdom of Holland proper hallmarks.

The real stuff

Amsterdam
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Silver marks used during the Kingdom of Holland 1807-1810- The first French Empire -1812 under French (Napoleonic) rules.
From left to right;
The hatchet used 1853 -1927 vald till 1953: not a standard mark for fineness. This hatchet mark used 1853-1927; duty mark for old gold and silver objects of national origin returned to the trade. This hatchet was intended for objects with the hallmarks of the ancient Netherlands goldsmiths companies, of Louis Napoleon's kingdom of Holland, of the French Republic, of the French Empire until the end of 1813, of Maastricht and Liege 1814-1815, and of the former Southern Netherlands considered national and thus exempt from import duty . The use of this mark was abolished in 1927 for two reasons: 1st. the lack of knowledge of the old marks had caused this mark to be sometimes struck on old foreign objects. 2nd. This mark has often been counterfeited and used to give objects an antique aura. The difference with the older French hatchet mark: The French hatchet mark was struck tax free on objects with valid hallmarks. This Dutch hatchet was struck, also as an indication of marking duty payment on objects with hallmarks which were considered fiscally valid.

b date letter for the year 1809 (used as of 18 March 1809 till 21 December 1809)

Three Saint Andrew's Crosses in a vertical oval for the city of Amsterdam, assay office mark (this one is shown on its side)

The Crown for 1st standard or grote keur being 11 Penningen and 5 grein or 934.028 parts per thousand

The maker's mark: Image for: Nathanael Teuter born in 1766 and active silversmith registered in Amsterdam during 1796-1831. Known ladle maker


Amsterdam 10 penningen

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The hallmarks; shield with three Saint Andrew's Crosses or office mark for Amsterdam. The date letter; the square shield with rounded corners with the letter a; for 1807+1808. The standard mark; I0 in a rectangle for; 10 penningen or 833,3 fineness ( 2nd standard or kleine keur).
Makers mark vlammend hart-flaming heart for; Dirk Goedhart, 1782-1816, known for small silver work like silver loderein boxes and needle boxes.




Delft

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From left to right;
a = date letter, 7 Oct 1807-18 Mar 1809
IVK = maker's mark of Johannes van Kuyk/Kuijk
crown = fineness, 11 penningen & 5 grein [.934]
Oval with a pale (vertical bar) = city mark/assay office mark of Delft, this one is shown on its side. The city marks used during this period were generally based on the civic arms and all city marks of the time were vertical ovals and the vertical bar indicates the city is along a river or water.


The Hague

Some facts about the silversmiths in the province of Holland. In 1795, compared to Amsterdam, The Hague was a small city. The Hague, governmental city of the Low Countries and with special citizens being; high ranking government officials, high ranking army officers, provincial delegates, foreign diplomats, Nobility & Royalties. You also could say the silversmiths of The Hague were trend setting, modern but also copying French styles, to full fill the needs of there cosmopolitan clienteles. Compared to Amsterdam, in proportion the citizen of The Hague were much richer in money and taste.
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The date letter C, turned 90 degrees to the right, in an oval shield used; 21st December 1809 till 17th December 1810, followed by the guild city mark of The Hague, followed by the crown for silver of 1st standard = 934/1000 and the makers mark is: IAT conjoined for; Johannes A. van der Toorn, The Hague 1795-1811

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FS for François Simons,

To prevent fraudulent practices.

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Office mark Amsterdam, oval with four exits introduced in August 1809, to prevent fraud. Assaying was compulsory and also tax had to be paid for each piece of silver & gold and the tax rate was calculated by the weight of the precious metal; the heavier, the higher the tax rate. Some silversmith had a light weight piece of silver or gold assayed and accordingly paid a duty fee. The (hall) marks were later transferred /soldered on a heavy weight piece of silver or gold thus avoiding to pay a higher duty. To stop this fraudulent misuse of the office mark a different format of the office mark was introduced for light weight silver & gold objects; the office mark in an oval with four exits. It turned out to be successful against this fraudulent practice. And 1st January 1810, with the introduction of the new year letter C (italics), all assay offices in the Kingdom of Holland introduced this special ‘light weight’ office mark for small & light gold & silver objects.

oel
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City guild marks as of the middle ages towards 1795

Postby oel » Wed Feb 27, 2013 7:58 am

City guild marks as of the middle ages towards 1795
The city guild's Dean and Wardens played an important role in essaying & testing of precious metals & upholding certain agreed silver standards, to take care of the responsibility marks; like the qualifications of newbie gold & silversmith (apprentice) and the registry of a maker's mark, the city marks, date letters and standard marks. Protect & regulate the trade and to protect the Guild's own interest.
The Amsterdam gold and silversmith guild was probably formed between 1570 and 1578, an exact founding date is unknown but it is known that since 1464. the gold and silversmiths had their own altar in the Old Church of Amsterdam. From the year 1469, the Amsterdam gold & silver master craftsmen were obliged to apply for a registered master's mark (responsibility mark) and mark their work with their master's mark before it could be assayed. City guild inspectors called Assay masters assayed the the gold & silver work for the proper standard of fineness and approved it with the Amsterdam guild mark; consisting of three pole-wise placed Saint Andrew's Crosses.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Amsterdam
Since 1502 the date letter, to identify which assay officer was on duty, has been introduced.
In the year 1503 Philippe le Bel's fundamental ordinance proclaimed: silver & gold items, the Dean and Wardens shall strike every object with two marks, one the town's arms crowned and by A.B.C ( a letter of the alphabet or year-letter) and the Master who has wrought it shall have struck his mark on it before delivering it into the Dean's hands. Control of the gold and silver content of processed gold and silver was carried out by the Assay Wardens of the local gold and silversmiths' guilds, which in turn were under the supervision of the Dean in Charge of the Province Mint Board. The weights & Scales used by the gold and silversmiths and their guilds were checked by the Mint.


Amsterdam city marks
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From left to right:
First vertical row around 16th-17th centuries
Second vertical row around 17th century
Third vertical row: with combined date letter 18th century for silver of 2nd standard.

Amsterdam
City located in the province of Holland, at the mouth of the Amstel River, a city of major importance during the Dutch Republic .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Republic"

In the seventeenth century Amsterdam was the main town in the Northern Netherlands. The gold and silversmith guild was probably formed between 1570 and 1578, an exact founding date is unknown but it is known that since 1464. the gold and silversmiths had their own altar in the Old Church of Amsterdam. From the year 1469, the Amsterdam gold & silver master craftsmen were obliged to apply for a registered master's mark (responsibility mark) and mark their work with their master's mark before it could be assayed. City guild inspectors called Assay masters assayed the the gold & silver work for the proper standard of fineness and approved it with the Amsterdam guild mark; consisting of three pole-wise placed Andreas crosses. Since 1502 the date letter, to identify which assay officer was on duty, has been introduced.

Province Holland
Initially a county, later the most important region of the Dutch Republic. Since 1663, in the province of Holland and West Friesland there was a provincial ordinance on the testing of gold and silver. The legal silver standard, of the highest silver content, or 1st standard in Dutch Grote Keur was determined at; elf penningen en acht greinen (approx. 944/1000) and with a maximum tolerance of minus three grains (greinen) (approximately 10/1000) or minimum of 934/1000 fineness and the lowest standard or 2nd standard in Dutch Kleine Keur at; tien penningen (833,333 / 1000) minimum.
The silver content of the highest or 1st standard was almost identical to the silver content of a silver coin called; the Silver Rider or Ducaton.
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Within the monetary system the 2nd standard of silver or 'Kleine Keur' had no equivalent coin nomination .

Silverware of 1st standard was stamped with the province Coat of Arms of Holland; the lion rampant facing left in a crowned shield; that served as a fineness mark. However also seen in smaller size, the lion rampant without crown and small type of date letter,9th,10th,11th cycle Amsterdam alphabet and to indicate 2nd standard of silver
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Variations of the Hollandse Leeuw
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Control of the gold and silver content of processed gold and silver was carried out by the Assay Wardens of the local gold and silversmiths' guilds, which in turn were under the supervision of the Dean in Charge of the Province Mint Board. The weights & Scales used by the gold and silversmiths and their guilds were checked by the Mint.

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From left to right; Grote Keur 1st Standard Coat of Arms of Holland; Lion Rampant in crowned shield for 944/1000 fineness, Guild assay mark, Saint Andrew's Crosses for the city of Amsterdam, maker's mark R for; Jacob van Resant 1712-1750, date letter O for the year 1724 or 1748

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Amsterdam combined city mark and date letter 2nd standard silver



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The Oval with tulip; maker's mark for Isaac de Vries, born 1700, the son of silversmith Michiel de Vries & Sarah Keysers, master 1732, died 1779. Dutch Silver Guild Marks: Saint Andrew's Crosses in combination with date letter, for the city of Amsterdam, 2nd Standard (kleine keur) for Amsterdam or .833 fineness, the letter N for 1747 or 1772. Studying the combined city/date mark; the shape of the crown, size of the date letter, the soft rounded corners of the shield using the alphabets for Amsterdam showed in the book L.B. Gans goud-en zilvermerken van Voet comparing the 12th and 13th alphabet for Amsterdam conclusion most likely the combined city/ date letter for Amsterdam 1747.
NB; City Arms mark and date letter together (dual punch mark) used in Amsterdam for the designation of silver fineness of 2nd Standard. After 1734, this way of dual stamping applied. Before on small objects, below 30 grams, we often see makers'mark only and sometimes in combination with a city mark.The purpose of the date letter; to identify which assayer was on duty and whose responsibility it was to check if the silver content was up to the correct minimum legal standard. To my understanding the kleine keur with date letter for small items has been introduced around or in 1733, to standardize the lower fineness for small items less than 30 grams only, which before that had varied from city to city. The new regulation fixed the second standard for silver below 30 grams & above 30 grams at 10 penningen, or .833. (This was only for Holland, though other provinces had their own regulations until the 19th century and own standards set and sometimes up to four different standards).

oel
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City guild marks as of the middle ages towards 1795 & 1814-2

Postby oel » Thu Feb 28, 2013 10:51 am

City Marks used by the various silver & gold guilds.Variations are possible and some cities used other marks/variations during a certain time period. In the beginning only one silver standard was used normally of very high fineness. Later two, sometimes three standards were use 1st standard (Grote keur) and 2nd standard (Kleine keur)
Some cities like Gouda have used an uncrowned city mark for 2nd standard silver.
Leijden's 1st standard: crowned crossed keys and 2nd standard, first mentioned in 1661, one key with date letter attached.
As of 1663 the 1st standard for objects; maker's mark, city mark crowned together with a province standard mark crowned and a year-letter. On small object, light weight often maker's mark only. The 2nd standard introduced 1664; makers' mark, city mark crowned or uncrowned and sometimes with or without date letter.
Amsterdam 2nd standard as of 1664 ; small sized city mark, small sized province standard mark uncrowned, small type of date letter until 1716. From 1716 till 1734 no year letter was used.




City of Alkmaar.
Image.Alkmaar is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of Noord Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination. The earliest mention of the name Alkmaar is in a 10th-century document. As the village grew into a town, it was granted city rights in 1254. The oldest part of Alkmaar lies on an ancient sand bank that afforded some protection from inundation during medieval times. Even so, it is only a couple of metres above the surrounding region, which consists of some of the oldest polders in existence. In 1573 the city underwent a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Don Fadrique, son of the Duke of Alva. The citizens sent urgent messages for help to the Prince of Orange; he responded by promising to open the floodgates of the dykes and flood the region if the need arose, which despite the protestations of the peasantry, fearful for their harvest, he proceeded to do. Some of his dispatches fell into the hands of Don Fadrique, and, with the waters beginning to rise; the Spaniards raised the siege and fled. It was a turning point in the Eighty Years War and gave rise to the expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie ("Victory begins at Alkmaar"). The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day the siege ended. In 1799, during the French revolutionary wars, an Anglo-Russian expeditionary force captured the city but was ultimately defeated in the Battle of Castricum. The town mark of Alkmaar is based on the coat of arms; a stronghold/castle tower
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Makers mark WH conjoined for: Willem Hooglander Sr. (has been faked), town mark Alkmaar (rotated 90degrees), lion rampant in a crowned shield, province of Holland 1st standard mark silver 934/1000 fineness, date letter script D for; 1738-1739




City of Arnhem
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The city of Arnhem had its real origins in 1233 when Otto II, count of Guelders from Zutphen, conferred city rights on the town, which had belonged to the abbey of Prüm, settled in, and fortified it. Arnhem entered the Hanseatic League in 1443. In 1473, it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. In 1514, Charles of Egmond, duke of Guelders, took it from the dukes of Burgundy; in 1543, it fell to the emperor Charles V. As capital of the so-called "Kwartier van Veluwe" it joined the Union of Utrecht during the Eighty years war in 1579. After its capture from the Spanish forces by Dutch and English troops in 1585 the city became part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. The French occupied the town 1672–74; from 1795 to 1813, it was re-occupied by the French, by both revolutionary and imperial forces. In the early 19th century, the former fortifications were almost completely dismantled, to give space for town expansion. Image
The town mark of Arnhem based on the city coat of arms a double headed eagle. Maker’s mark R.R for Rutger Reinder registered 1769-1811, date letter L (around 1782), HOL 1st standard mark.



City of Bolsward.
ImageImage(used 1735)
The town mark based on the coat of arms. The town is founded on three artificial dwelling hills, the first of which was built some time before Christ. Bolsward was a trading city with a port in the Middle Ages. The Middelzee or Middle sea connected the port once to the North Sea, but this connection was lost when the Middle sea was reclaimed from the sea; a canal was then cut to the Zuider Zee. The Middelzee (Dutch for "middle sea"; West Frisian: Middelsee), also called Bordine, was the estuary mouth of the River Boorn (West Frisian: Boarn) now in the Dutch province of Friesland. It ran from as far south as Sneek northward to the Wadden Sea and marked the border between main Frisian regions of Westergoa and Eastergoa. Other historical names for the Middelzee include Bordaa, Borndiep, Boerdiep, and Bordena. Gradually the Middelzee silted up, forming the nije lannen ("new lands"). One village is called Nijlân, literally meaning "new land", and also there are several villages where the lands formerly of the Middelzee are still called it Nijlân. It can still be recognized as new land since there are only a small number of villages lying in the area of the former Middelzee. The fertile sea clay bottom is mostly used as meadow land but also Leeuwarden Air Base is situated on the new lands. The border between Eastergoa and Westergoa in the former Middlezee is now drained by the River Zwette (West Frisian: Swette), that runs from Sneek to Leeuwarden, but which once reached the southern edge of Het Bildt. By the fifteenth century the Middelzee was reduced to a funnel shape along Frisia's north coast and further silting of the remaining part rendered it unusable. From the early sixteenth century the polder of Het Bildt was formed in that funnel, and is now a Frisian municipality that fills the mouth of what once was the Middelzee. The name Middelzee is still used as a name for an administrative coalition between the so-called Middelzee municipalities of Het Bildt, Ferwerderadeel, Leeuwarderadeel, and Menaldumadeel.
The town of Bolsward is mentioned in 725, when it was situated on the Middlesea. As a trading city, Bolsward was granted city rights by Philip the Good in 1455. Bolsward was made a member of the Hanseatic league in 1422. It was the center of the former municipality named Bolsward, before that was merged into Súdwest Fryslân. Silver from Bolsward is often with maker’s mark only, without town mark and date letter.
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Makers mark EAT conjoined for: Egbartus Teeklenburg, registered in Bolsward 1721-1751
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Province Friesland 1st standard mark silver 934/1000 fineness
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Friesian year letter V for 1735
Gratitude Mr.Jan Schipper/ http://www.zilverstudie.nl



City of Boxmeer
Image.Boxmeer is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It incorporates the former municipality of Beugen en Rijkevoort and that of Vierlingsbeek. In Overloon is the Overloon War Museum. The goat of Boxmeer. The weapon is derived from the ships seal, which at least in in the 18th century already showed a Goat.
The goat in the municipal coat of arms is named after Jan Bok, the first Free Lord of Boxmeer. Jan Bok was a knight from the village of Meer, the present Meerbusch in Germany.
The village of Meer belonged to the Duchy of Guelders. Jan Bok built around the 13th century, a castle in De Meere, a backwater which today is the moat of the castle of Boxmeerse. According to a local historian Jan Bok, in fact was named Jan Buch. The name of the Lord of Boxmeer was spelled wrong in the thirteenth century Acts from Buch to Buck, Bock, and ultimately to Bok. The name Buch is explained by the fact that the original home of Knight Jan was located in a bend (Bucht) of the river Rhine. The coat of arms that Jan Buch used was not a goat, but the “Gelderse Leeuw” of the Duchy of Guelders.

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The town mark of Boxmeer is based on the coat of arms.From left to right; Lion rampant; the Arms of ‘de Heren van Bergh’, goat city silver mark of Boxmeer, Makers mark RR for : Rutger J. Raab, born 1757- active till 1827, made turn 18th century, Boxmeer used no date letters.


City of Breda
ImageIn the 11th century, Breda was a direct fief of the Holy Roman Emperor, its earliest known lord being Henry of Brunesheim (1080–1125). The city of Breda obtained a municipal charter in 1252. After that Breda had the rights to build fortifications. The city constructed brick walls and Roman-style gates.In 1327 Adelheid of Gaveren Breda sold Breda to John III, Duke of Brabant. In 1350, the fief was resold to John II of Wassenaar (d. 1377). In 1403 the heiress of his line, Johanna of Polanen (1392–1445), married Engelbert I of Nassau (1370–1442) (his sarcophagus is in the Grote Kerk in Breda). Through her, the city came into the possession of the house of Nassau, where it remained until 1795, passing to William I of Orange (1533–1584), stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht and leader of the Dutch revolt. Thus the baron of Breda was also count of Nassau, Germany, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the Dutch Republic (from 1572–1650, 1672–1702, 1747–1795). Breda remained part of the barony Breda until it was taken by French revolutionary forces in 1795.
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The town mark of Breda is based on the coat of arms; three Andreas crosses, one Andreas cross under 2 horizontal crosses, seen crowned and uncrowned. Date letter F for 1807, makers mark HS for; Henricus F. Simon, the number 7 in a crowned shield =1807, town mark Breda.


City of Delft
Image. The city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the 'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court. From a rural village in the early Middle Ages Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century (1246) received its charter. (For some more information about the early development, see Gracht).The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation of the country, which struggle is known as the Eighty Years' War. By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581 Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
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The town mark of Delft is based on a vertical pole symbolic for; Oude Delft Canal/Gracht/Delf. Makers mark IT for: Johannes Tiddens, registered 1718-1739, date letter A for 1730, 1st standard silver, town mark Delft.



City of Den Haag/The Hague
Image. The Counts’ Hedge. Though officially called Den Haag, the locals often refer to it as ‘s-Gravenhage, literally: 'The Counts' Hedge'. The Counts of Holland enjoyed hunting and took special interest in the area’s vast forests that reached from Gravenzande to Leiden in the Middle Ages, the remains of which are now known as the Haagse Bos. Originally basing themselves near the pond now known as the Hofvijver in the centre of The Hague, in the 13th century Count Willem II built the Binnenhof, or current houses of parliament, on the same spot. Lacking city rights, The Hague was unable to build the traditional wall and moat system of the day, so a town hall was built which can still be seen today in the Groenmarkt.
The keys to the city
The Hague is first chartered as a village called Die Haghe, until Louis Napoleon, King of the Netherlands from 1806, took entry. He insisted that by the following day he 'be offered the keys of the city at a ceremony in The Hague.' Without walls, or even a gate, the city couldn’t offer much in the line of actual keys. In some haste the elders asked the silversmith François Simons to produce two gilded silver keys which were offered to the king on an embroidered cushion. A few months later Napoleon proclaimed The Hague 'third city of the kingdom'.
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The town mark of The Hague/Den Haag/’s Gravenhage is based on the coat of arms, the stork from 1450-1581 stork in a castle gate, 1582-1807 stork with eel in beak in crowned shield. The Hague date letter S for 1764, Stork with eel, 1st standard silver 934/1000, makers mark G.T for: Gregorius van der Toorn II, registered 1738-1768. NB. The Hague marked 2nd standard silver or kleine keur; town mark, the stork without crown, lion rampant without crown and the year letter without an crown.



City of Deventer
Image. Deventer was probably founded around 768 by the English missionary Lebuinus, who built a wooden church on the east bank of the river IJssel. In January 772 the sack and burning of this church by a Saxon expedition was the cause for the first punitive war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, in which, in retribution, the Irminsul (sacred tree) was destroyed. This was not the first human settlement at the location; between 1981 and 2006, remains of a Bronze Age settlement (dated to c.400 CE) were excavated at Colmschate, 4 km east of the current city. The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to c. 1200. The village of Deventer, already important because of a trading road crossing the river IJssel, was looted and burnt down by the Vikings in 882. It was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall (in the street Stenen Wal remains of this wall have been excavated and restored). Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, which was capable of accommodating large ships. The city eventually joined the Hanseatic League. One of the commodities it traded in, dried haddock and cod from Norway, gave the citizens the nickname they carry to this day: "Deventer Stokvis" In the 15th century, Deventer had a common mint, where coins for the three IJssel cities Deventer, Zwolle, and Kampen were made.
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The town mark for Deventer is based on the coat of arms: single-headed eagle. This Deventer town mark is often confused with that of Arnhem, Leeuwarden, Middelburg or Nijmegen, where a double-headed eagle was used as town mark. Maker’s mark .W.S. for; Willem Scholten registered 1776-1809, the single-headed eagle town mark Deventer for 2nd standard silver, date letter 4th alphabet G=1779.



City of Dokkum
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Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland. The best known event in Dokkum's history is the assassination of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface in 754. Oliver of Cologne preached the Fifth Crusade in Dokkum in 1214 and Dokkum sent a contingent; the crescent in the coat of arms of Dokkum refers to this event. Dokkum acquired city rights in 1298. In 1572 Dokkum was sacked by the Spaniards after it had joined the Dutch Revolt. In 1597, the Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum. However, it was moved to Harlingen in 1645.
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City of Dokkum, the town mark is based on the coat of arms, three stars under a crescent moon. Double lion rampant, 1st standard mark province of Friesland silver 934/1000, date letter Z for Friesland 1777, makers mark ER for: Eise Ruardi (gratitude Zilverstudie.nl)


City of Dordrecht
Image. The city was formed along the Thure river, in the midst of peat swamps. This river was a branch of the river Dubbel and ran approximately near the current Bagijnhof. The first reference to Dordrecht was made in 846 in the Annals of Xanten for the Years 844-862 where the author notes how the Northmen (Vikings) plundered eastern and western Frisia and set fire to the town of Dordrecht. Around 1120 reference to Dordrecht was made by a remark that count Dirk IV was murdered 1049 near "Thuredrech".Dordrecht was granted city rights by William I, Count of Holland, in 1220, making it the oldest city in the present province of South Holland. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Dordrecht developed into an important market city because of its strategic location. It traded primarily in wine, wood and cereals. Dordrecht was made even more important when it was given staple right in 1299. In 1253 a Latin school was founded in Dordrecht. It still exists today as the Johan de Witt Gymnasium and is the oldest gymnasium in the Netherlands. On 18–19 November 1421, the Saint Elisabeth's flood flooded large parts of southern Holland, causing Dordrecht to become an island. It was commonly said that over 10,000 people died in the flood, but recent research indicates that it was probably less than 200 people. In the 18th century, the importance of Dordrecht began to wane, and Rotterdam became the main city in the region. Yet throughout the centuries, Dordrecht held a key position in the defence of Holland. It hosted an army division well into the 20th century.
City of Dordrecht silver guild used a crowned rose as town mark, similar to which the city of Norwich (UK) used in the late 16th and at the beginning of the 17th century, the town marks was a crowned rose which was later replaced by a rose alone. At the end of the 18th century Dordrecht used a rose uncrowned with leaves.
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Makers mark AWR conjoined for; Adriaan Wor, date letter F for Dordrecht 1718, lion rampant in a crowned shield, the Holland province 1st standard mark (934/1000), crowned rose the city silver mark of Dordrecht

The city of Einhoven.
Image. Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. The written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Endehoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside of the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liège. Around 1388, the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Guelders. The reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 it fell again: its defense works having been neglected due to poverty. A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished. Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution.
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Eindhoven never had an official silver guild and some silversmiths of Eindhoven were known to apply their own version of the town mark based on the coat of arms being three posthorns. The maker’s mark FO crowned could be for; F. van Osch, hence the Ox head.The hatchet is a later tax mark.




City of Enkhuizen.
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Enkhuizen is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia. Enkhuizen was one of the harbour-towns of the VOC, just like Hoorn and Amsterdam, from where overseas trade with the East Indies was conducted. It received city rights in 1355. In the mid-17th century, Enkhuizen was at the peak of its power and was one of the most important harbour cities in the Netherlands. However, due to a variety of reasons, notably the silting up of the harbours, Enkhuizen lost its position to Amsterdam.
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Town mark is based on the coat of arms of Enkhuizen: 3 herrings placed under each other in a crowned shield. Makers mark NR for: Nanning Rondhout, registered 1768-1796, three herrings for Enkhuizen, date letter H=1769 or 1794


City of Gorinchem.
Image. It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa the year 1000 by fishermen and farmers on the raised land near the mouth of the river Linge at the Merwede. "Goriks Heem" is first mentioned in a document from 1224 in which Floris IV granted people from Gorinchem exemption of toll payments throughout Holland. Somewhere between 1247 and 1267, Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel. At the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre. Half a century later real city walls were built complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November 1322. Jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in 1417. This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the eighth city of Holland. On 9 July 1572, the Watergeuzen (Dutch rebels against Spanish rule) conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests and monks because they refused to renounce their faith. These priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from then on known as the Martyrs of Gorkum. In the 16th century the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions, which still are almost completely intact. The new walls were rounded off in 1609 and were placed farther from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In 1673 Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line. The city walls had four city gates: the Arkel Gate in the north, the Dalem Gate in the east, the Water Gate in the south (where the ferry to Woudrichem was), and the Kansel Gate in the west. Of these four gates only the Dalem Gate remains. In the 18th century, the economy went into decline. After the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged.
The first town mark of Gorinchem was based upon the city arms, three tower castle in combination with the coat of arms of the family of van Arkel; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_van_Arkel


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Gorinchem year letter S for 1620, the town mark and maker's mark a button (knoop in Dutch) or "bell" for Cornelis Knoop 1605-1659.

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Top left; Lion rampant, province standard mark for silver 934/1000, Top right; town mark Gorinchem, makers mark AS above a flower for: Adriaan van Sgravenweert, registered 1711-1739, date letter b for 1711 or 1735
The town mark of Gorinchem (province (zuid)Holland) has been based upon two crenelated beams( Coat of arms of the family van Arkel) in a shield with a crown but also seen without crown. At the end of the 18th century the two crenelated beams were simplified into a wave pattern. Gorinchem is pronounced Gorcum and often spelled Gorcum.
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The maker's mark IS for; Jacobus Schrader Sr registered in Gorcum from 1773-1811. Known flatware maker.
The crowned date letter for 2 st standard of silver 875/1000 fineness, X for 1780 or 1804.

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From left to right; DR for Dirk Rosenburg, registered 1789-1810, crowned O duty (free) mark of 1807 for old objects, Gorinchem year letter A, uncrowned for 1807 and 2nd standard silver, followed by the city mark of Gorinchem without crown for 2nd standard silver. Later in October 1807, the (hall)marks and year letter Kingdom of Holland were introduced.


City of Gouda
Image. Around the year 1100, the area where Gouda now is located was swampy and covered with a peat forest, crossed by small creeks such as the Gouwe. Along the shores of this stream near the current market and city hall, peat harvesting began in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1139, the name Gouda is first mentioned in a statement from the Bishop of Utrecht. In the 13th century, the Gouwe was connected to the Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) by means of a canal and its mouth at the Hollandse IJssel was developed into a harbour. Castle Gouda was built to protect this harbour. This shipping route was used for trade between Flanders and France with Holland and the Baltic Sea. In 1272, Floris V, Count of Holland, granted city rights to Gouda, which by then had become an important location. City-canals or grachten were dug and served as transport ways through the town. Great fires in 1361 and 1438 destroyed the city. In 1572, the city was occupied by Les Gueux (Dutch rebels against the Spanish King) who also committed arson and destruction. In 1577 the demolition of Castle Gouda began. In 1574, 1625, 1636, and 1673, Gouda suffered from deadly plague epidemics, of which the last one was the most severe: 2995 persons died, constituting 20% of its population. In the last quarter of the 16th century, Gouda had serious economic problems. It recovered in the first half of the 17th century and even prospered between 1665 and 1672. But its economy collapsed again when war broke out in 1672 and the plague decimated the city in 1673, even affecting the pipe industry. After 1700, Gouda enjoyed a period of progress and prosperity until 1730. Then another recession followed, resulting in a long period of decline that lasted well into the 19th century. Gouda was one of the poorest cities in the country during that period: the terms "Goudaner" and "beggar" were considered synonymous.
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Gouda town mark/ city coat of arms is based on the family coat of arms of the knights/lords of ‘Heren van der Goude’ vertical bar flanked by three stars.Crowned for 1st standard silver and uncrowned for 2nd standard silver.
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Finch in contour facing right maker's mark for: Pleunis van Geelen, registered in the city of Gouda during 1782-1807. Pleunis van Geelen became essayer and appraiser of the city Gouda in 1795. The city mark of Gouda uncrowned for 2nd standard of silver followed by the date-letter, unclear could be d or i for either 1783 or 1788.



City of Groningen.
Image. The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city already existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD. In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren was built, which loomed over the city at (then) 127 metres tall, making it perhaps the highest building in Europe at the time. The city's independence came to an end when in 1536, it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord. It later joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded, initially only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. That same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted an event which is celebrated with music and fireworks on 28 August (as “Gronings Ontzet” or “Bommen Berend”.
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Groningen used a combined town mark and date letter. The town mark of Groningen is based on the coat of arms: an oval with a horizontal bar in the middle. Above the bar is a number to indicate the alphabet series used; below the bar an alphabetical letter. To indicate 1st standard silver, the combined town mark was struck twice and the maker’s mark struck twice. In this case; town mark Groningen, 8th alphabet for 1775-1776, makers mark JS for: Joseph Seeser, registered 1752-1781, 1st standard silver.

City of Haarlem.
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Guild city mark of Haarlem, the coat of arms: a sword flanked by two stars under a cross and crown. Haarlem receives a sword for its shield from the German emperor in thanks for the victory in Damietta during the 5th crusade. Scene is now referred to as "the legend of the Haarlem shield". Haarlem has a rich history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal (beach ridge), which connects Leiden to Alkmaar. The people on this narrow strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ and the Haarlem Lake from the east. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships and travellers moving on this busy North-South route. However, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a quiet bedroom community, and for this reason Haarlem still has many of its central medieval buildings intact.
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Province mark Holland to indicate 1st standard silver 934/1000, town mark Haarlem, date letter N for 1699, maker’s mark (rotated 180 degrees to the right) HB conjoined for: Hendrik Blommendael , registered 1695-1700.


City of Harlingen.
Image.Harlingen , West Frisian: Harns) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. Harlingen is an old town with a long history of fishing and shipping. Harlingen received city rights in 1234. The Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum in 1597 but moved to Harlingen in 1645.Image
Town mark of Harlingen is based on the coat of arms: a shield divided in four quarters, in two quarters we see 4 crosses and in two quarters we see three fleur de lies. Harlingen has used different variations.
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Maker’s mark IS for: Johannes Spannenburgh , registered 1746-1785. Harlingen used date letters for Friesland.



City of‘s-Hertogenbosch/Den Bosch
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The origin of the city's name 'the Duke's forest' is clearly illustrated in the coat of arms. To explain the entire history of this colourful emblem you'd need an entire book, but here's the short answer. The first mention of the existence of the coat of arms dates to a document from 1242. The main feature on the coat of arms, the tree, is a telling symbol of the Duke's forest. The tree, accompanied by two smaller ones, was already implemented on the oldest known city seal. The eagle is the German Reich's eagle with the Austrian shield on its chest. The gold crown and the two wild men were added in 1670 when the coat of arms was placed on the new city hall. Why the wild men appeared on the coat of arms of ‘s-Hertogenbosch is unclear. One explanation could be that they made the forest dwellers who were associated with the founding of the city into guards.
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Town mark is based on a crowned/uncrowned forest tree and at the end of the 18th century ‘s-Hertogenbosch town mark a ‘Wildman of the woods’. ‘s-Hertogenbosch date letter Z for 1749-1750, makers mark star under crown for: Theodorus van Berckel Jr., registered 1734-1770.


City of Hoorn.
Image. Founded in 716, Hoorn rapidly grew to become a major harbour town. During Holland's 'Golden Age' (or 'Golden Century'), Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and a very prosperous centre of trade. The Hoorn fleet plied the seven seas and returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name far and wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587–1629) is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies (now Indonesia), where he "founded" the city of Batavia in 1619 (now Jakarta). He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. In 1618 Willem Bontekoe (1587–1657) undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC. His story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren ('Journal, or memorable description, of the East-Indian voyage of Willem Ysbrantz. Bontekoe of Hoorn, comprising many wondrous and dangerous things experienced by him'). In 1616, the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America. He named it Kaap Hoorn (Cape Horn) in honour of his home town. Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century. The prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. Following the Napoleonic occupation, there was a period during which the town gradually turned its back on the sea. It developed to become the market for the entire West Frisian agricultural region. Stallholders and shopkeepers devoted themselves to trading in dairy produce and seeds. When the railway and metalled roads came to Hoorn in the late nineteenth century, the town rapidly took its rightful place as a conveniently located and readily accessible centre in the network of towns and villages which make up the province of Noord-Holland. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk, or Great Enclosing Dyke, was completed and Hoorn was no longer a seaport.
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The town mark is based on the coat of arms a music horn on a bow. Makers mark three stars for: Johannes Sieuwerts, registered 1778-1811, province mark 1st standard, date letter T=1779.



City of Kampen.
Image. By 1150, there were already wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is currently located. The name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until 1277. The city has had city rights since 1236. As a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen quickly developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe. In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta.The silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from 1430 on. For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League. When the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: the city was forced to choose a side in the war. Kampen was originally more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, and therefore in 1441 formally joined the Hanseatic League. The city had much influence in the League; despite loud protests from the other towns in lower reaches of the IJssel and from other Hanseatic cities, the League agreed in 1448 to build a bridge over the river.[5] This project was accomplished in just five months. With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. On 11 August 1572 Kampen was conquered from the Spaniards by Willem van den Bergh, a brother of William of Orange. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish. In 1578, the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland. From 1500 the islands were leased. The rents were so large that the city did not need to raise taxes.The Franco-Dutch War, fought by the Republic of the United Netherlands against the Kingdom of France, Sweden, the Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England, marked a definitive end to the enormous power of the city. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century. The city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow. During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were relatively high and within a few years, the river silted up again. As the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: some watercourses were dammed to allow for more water at a higher speed through one or two main routes. This had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, who, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was also involved in hydraulic engineering. Due to the emerging industry in the 19th century and the importance of roads and railways for the economy, highways and paved roads were constructed to replace transportation over sand and mud roads.
Image The town mark is based on the coat of arms, a castle/stronghold with three towers under a crown. Kampen used for 2nd standard silver a combined town and standard mark; R.D above three towers, R.D short for ‘Rijks Daalder’(coinsilver) 892/1000 fineness. The 1st standard indicated with a mark; GK in rectangle for’ Grote Keur’. Maker’s mark IVK for: Jan van Kamen(Camen) 1750-….., date letter R under dot, could be for 1751…..



City of Leeuwarden.
Image. Leeuwarden Stadsfries: Liwwadden, Frisian: Ljouwert, is the capital city of the Frisian province of Friesland in the Netherlands. Image. It is situated in the northern part of the country. The area has been occupied since the 10th century (although recently, remains of houses dating back to the 2nd century AD were discovered during a dig near the Oldehove), and was mentioned as a city in German sources in 1285. The actual city charter was granted in 1435. Situated along the Middelzee (Middle Sea), it was an active trade centre, until the waterway silted up in the 15th century. In 1901 the city had a population of 32,203.
A proto-Frisian culture slowly began to emerge around 400–200 BC known for its artificial dwelling hills as a defence against the sea. The Roman claim on Frisia began in 12 BC with the campaign of Nero Claudius Drusus in Germania. After a series of costly battles against the Frisians, the Romans were suddenly sworn fealty. The de facto independence they later enjoyed as a Roman vassal shows that this might have been a mostly diplomatic decision based on the temporary favourable bargaining position. Together with other Germanic tribes such as the Salians (later Franks) and the Batavii they managed to keep the region north of the Lower Rhine mostly free from Roman influence. The early eighth-century AD is known for the Frisian kingdom, king Redbad and the missionary Saint Boniface who was killed in Dokkum, Westlauwers Friesland. At the start of the Middle Ages, the Frisian Kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from what is now the French/Belgian border to the River Weser in Germany, with in its centre the flourishing trading post Dorestad. After incorporation into the Frankish empire, Friesland was divided into three parts. The westernmost part developed at the start of the second millennium into the County of Holland, while the remainder of Frisia had no feudal overlord, a situation known as the Frisian freedom. That ended when Charles V added Frisia to the Habsburg Netherlands as Lordship of Frisia. Under Napoleon, the department was named Frise. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813, the department became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as the province of Friesland.
Image.ImageCity of Leeuwarden together with the Frisian province mark(dual Lion)
Image Image Clock wise; maker's mark IF for; Johannes Feddema, registered in Leeuwarden from1780-1811. Lion rampant in a crowned shield, guild city mark for Leeuwarden used as of 1779 till 1802.The Frisian province mark; two lions in a crowned shield, to indicate 1st standard or 934/1000 fineness. And the Frisian date letter H for 1785.




City of Leiden(Leijden)
Image. Leiden and archaic Dutch also Leyden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Centre. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of England's oldest university. Leiden has historically been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum. This particular castellum was however closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called. Leiden formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill (motte), was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4000 persons. Leiden flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important printing and publishing industry. The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir (1547–1617), who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted (in a variant spelling) by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) lived (and operated a printing press) for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World.
On 12 January 1807, a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17,400 kg (38,360 lb) of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden. 151 persons were killed, over 2000 were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the center of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years. In 1886 the space was turned into a public park, the Van der Werff. In the 17th century, Leiden prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15,000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45,000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70,000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam. From the late 17th century onwards Leiden slumped, mainly due to the decline of the cloth industries. In the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up, although industry remained central to Leiden economy. This decline is painted vividly by the fall in population. The population of Leiden had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.From the 17th to the early 19th century, Leiden was the publishing place of one of the most important contemporary journals, Nouvelles Extraordinaires de Divers Endroits, known also as Gazette de Leyde.
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The coat of arms/crest of Leiden consists of 2 crossed keys; therefore they are an often seen symbol in Leiden. The keys are the symbol of the patron of the city; Saint Petrus. This tradition dates from 1293, when signets with Petrus on it were frequently used on documents.
Makers mark GHN for; Geradus Hendrikus Nieuwenhuyzen, registered 1792-1818, 1st standard silver, lion rampant without crown (French occupation), Town mark Leijden, two crossed keys under crown, date letter P=1797. Gerardus Hendrikus Nieuwenhuyzen registered in Leiden from 1792-1818. He used GHN from 1792-1811 and N above a Poppy in a lozenge (French style) from 1812/1818. Gerardus Hendricus Nieuwenhuijzen died in Leiden February 3, in 1818, born in Leiden, 49 years old, residing in Mare wijk 6 nr 1199, [i]zilversmid
by profession.
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Leijden, first mentioned in 1661, used for 2nd standard silver or ‘kleine keur’ single key combined with date letter, script L for 1794. The year letter could be above, next and under the key.



City of Maastricht
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The town mark of Maastricht is based on the coat of arms of Maastricht (Dutch: Wapen van Maastricht; Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Waope vaan Mestreech) is a symbol of the city of Maastricht, Limburg, The Netherlands. It consists of a red escutcheon (shield) with a five-pointed white star that is adorned by a coronet (crown) of gold whilst being held by an angel. Together with the flag of Maastricht, the coat of arms functions as the official symbol of Maastricht.
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The 5 pointed star, city guild mark for the city of Maastricht in the province of Limburg. Date letter H for the time period: 1776-1778. Maker''s mark, ING Crowned for: Johannes N. Gilissen, registered 1772-1799.
And we also see a French hatchet; the poinçon de vieux, poinçon de hazard or second-hand mark.The French mark was struck tax free on objects with valid hallmarks.When an old object returned to the trade, in accordance with the French rules 1798-1809 it had to be re-submitted to the assay office for verification of the marks. When it proved that the marks on the object were still valid, the French hatchet was struck as a formality free of all charges, whereupon the object could be sold.
The separated city mark and date letter indicates; 1st standard silver or grote keur for 934/1000 fineness. ( 2nd standard or Kleine keur, combined city mark and date letter in one shield). Maastricht used various silver standards and silver of Maastricht with the old Guild marks are hard to find.

Maastricht's history in a nut shell.


Maastricht, an old Catholic stronghold and perhaps even the oldest settlement and city in the Netherlands. The important strategic location of Maastricht resulted during the ages in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city.
In 1579, when Spain ruled the Netherlands, the city of Maastricht was in the hands of Dutch rebels. In 1579, on the 12th of March, the Spanish General Alexander Farnese started to lay siege to the city with his army consisting of 20,000 men. The same year, on June 29th, the city was conquered and ransacked for more than three days, looting by the Spanish soldiers, citizen were raped and killed, blood and treasure lost including most of Maastricht's silver. Famiano Strada (Rome, 1572 - there, June 9, 1649) a Jesuit priest, historian and moralist, estimated the value of the booty, more than one million guilders.
Maastricht was occupied by the Spanish troops for 53 years. In 1632 the city was conquered by Frederick Henry the protestant Prince of Orange. His victory brought a certain degree of stability and introduced a new era of religious tolerance. The citizens of Maastricht had suffered tremendously during all sieges of their town but now Protestants and Catholics could coexist in some sort of harmony. In 1634 Maastricht came under tread of another Spanish siege and church & citizens were summoned by the Magistrate of Maastricht to hand over their silver & gold, in order to make coins, to pay for the extra costs to defend the city.

French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678. From 1748 till 1749 the French once again conquered the city. The French took the city one last time in 1794 and Maastricht was annexed to the First French Empire.In 1795 the bourgeoisie of Maastricht were forced to pay a very high war tax or if they could not comply to hand over their gold & silver and 1796 the municipal officials of Maastricht were ordered to hand over all their official silver to the French.
In 1795, the Old Regime of the Dutch republic under William V, Prince of Orange fled to the safety of England. History reveals that in general the Dutch citizen were not against the French and welcomed the later introduced Napoleonic Code or Code Napoléon, and officially Code civil des Français; the French civil code established under Napoleon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. These laws reflected the spirit of the French Revolution, and essentially liberated the common people of Europe and ended the Old Regime. Today the Civil Code forms the basis of many European legal systems.
After the Napoleonic Wars, the allies set to work to redraw the map of Europe. The solution they came up with for the Netherlands was to build a new united state combining Belgium and Holland to form a strong buffer to the north of France. This union did not last long. In 1830 the Belgians rose against the monarch and government of the north and declared their independence. Geographically Maastricht should have become a part of Belgium, but the garrison under General Dibbets remained loyal to the house of Orange. And in 1839, to the discontent of the Belgians, the province of Limburg was partitioned with Maastricht remaining in Dutch hands.

oel
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Location: The Netherlands

City guild marks as of the middle ages towards 1795 & 1814

Postby oel » Tue Apr 30, 2013 1:19 pm

City mark of Meppel.
Image. Meppel is a municipality and a city in the northeast of the Netherlands, in the south-west of the province Drenthe. It developed in the 16th century as a transport and distribution inland harbour for turf. There used to be a lot of waterways in the town, but now only one remains. People born in Meppel are occasionally referred to as 'Meppeler Muggen'; this translates as mosquitos/gnats from Meppel. This is due to a traditional folk tale. The people of Meppel thought the church tower was on fire. After closer inspection it was only a swarm of mosquitos.
ImageImage The town mark on Meppel silver has derived from the lordshipseal ("landschapszegel") of Drenthe. This seal originated in the monastery of Maria in Campis. The Asser Coat of Arms is nearly isentical to the Drentse Coat of Arms, where the Child Jezus sits on the left knee. Official description: "A shield of azure, charged with a crowned image of the Virgin Mary, dressed in white, sitting between to columns or, with a naked child, whose head is surrounded with rays, on the dexter knee. The shield surmonté with a crown or and supported on both sides by a rampant lion. The maker’s mark script RvD for: Remmelt van der Wolde, date letter Z for 1789/1790




City of Middelburg.
Image. Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. Situated on the central peninsula of the Zeeland province, Midden-Zeeland (consisting of former islands Walcheren, Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland. The city of Middelburg dates back possibly to the late 8th century or early 9th century. The first mention of Middelburg was as one of three fortified towns (i.e., borgs) erected on Walcheren (then an island) to guard against Viking raids. In 844 a monastery was built on the site, which remained an active Catholic foundation until the Reformation. Foundations for Middelburg's "stately and picturesque" cathedral (one of only two pre-Reformation cathedrals in The Netherlands, along with St. Martin's in Utrecht) were first laid in the 10th century; additional construction continued through the Middle Ages. Middelburg was granted city rights in 1217. During the Middle Ages, it became an important trading centre in the commerce between England and the rising cities of Flanders. The town continued to gain in power and prestige during the 13th and 14th centuries. In the Eighty Years' War, Middelburg was captured from the Spanish forces during a long siege. The northern provinces of the original Low Countries won their independence from their former Spanish Habsburg rulers and formed The Netherlands, a Protestant state. Later, in the 17th century (the Dutch Golden Age), Middelburg became, after Amsterdam, the most important center for the East India Company of Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (VOC) or Dutch East India Company. Middelburg played an important role in the 17th century slave trade.
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City of Middelburg
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The town mark of Middelburg is based on the coat of arms: a double-headed (crowned) eagle in a shield. There are various versions of the city mark known. Makers mark LP gentleman for; Lodewijk Potmans, registered 1774-1797, double-headed eagle with date letter combined K= 1773-1775. Reference book; J. de Bree Zeeuws Zilver.
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Town mark for the city of Middelburg, used 2nd half 18th century, 2nd standard or coin silver being 10 penningen 16 greinen (893/1000), year letter G for 1770. Maker's mark GS under a star for for Gerard Stertzenbach registered in Middelburg 1753-1786.





City of Nijmegen.
Image. Nijmegen, historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is situated on the Waal River, close to the German border. Nijmegen is among the three oldest cities in the Netherlands. The first mention of Nijmegen in history is in the 1st century BC, when the Romans built a military camp on the place where Nijmegen was to appear; the location had great strategic value because of the surrounding hills, which gave (and continue to give) a good view over the Waal and Rhine valley. By 69, when the Batavians, the original inhabitants of the Rhine and Maas delta, revolted, a village called Oppidum Batavorum had formed near the Roman camp. This village was destroyed in the revolt, but when it had ended the Romans built another, bigger camp where the Legio X Gemina was stationed. Soon after, another village formed around this camp.In 98, Nijmegen was the first of two settlements in what is now the Kingdom of the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. In 103, the X Gemina was re-stationed to Vindobona, modern day Vienna, which may have been a major blow to the economy of the village around the camp, losing around 5000 inhabitants. In 104 Emperor Trajan renamed the town, which now became known as Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum, Noviomagus for short (the origin of the current name Nijmegen). Beginning in the second half of the 4th century, Roman power decreased and Noviomagus eventually became part of the Frankish kingdom. It has been contended that in the 8th century Emperor Charlemagne maintained his palatium in Nijmegen on at least four occasions. During his brief deposition of 830, the emperor Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his son Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal river, trade flourished. The powerful Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor was born at Nijmegen in 1165. In 1230 his son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor granted Nijmegen city rights. In 1247, the city was ceded to the count of Guelders as collateral for a loan. The loan was never repaid, and Nijmegen has been a part of Gelderland ever since. This did not hamper trade; Nijmegen even became part of the Hanseatic League in 1364. The arts also flourished in this period. Famous medieval painters like the Limbourg brothers were born and educated in Nijmegen. During the Dutch Revolt, trade came to a halt and even though Nijmegen became a part of the Republic of United Provinces in 1585, it remained a border town and had to endure multiple sieges. In 1678 Nijmegen was host to the negotiations between the European powers that aimed to put an end to the constant warfare that had ravaged the continent for years. The result was the Treaty of Nijmegen that, unfortunately, failed to provide for a lasting peace. In the second half of the 19th century, the fortifications around the city became a major problem. There were too many inhabitants inside the walls, but the fortifications could not be demolished because Nijmegen was deemed as being of vital importance to the defence of the Netherlands. When events in the Franco-Prussian war proved that old-fashioned fortifications were no more of use, this policy was changed and the fortifications were dismantled in 1874. The old castle had already been demolished in 1797, so that its bricks could be sold. Through the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, Nijmegen grew steadily. The Waal was bridged in 1878 by a rail bridge and in 1936 by a car bridge, which was claimed to be Europe's biggest bridge at the time. In 1923 the current Radboud University Nijmegen was founded and in 1927 a channel was dug between the Waal and Maas rivers.
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Double-headed eagle, the town mark of Nijmegen based on the coat of arms, in connection with the Holy Roman (German) Empire. As a trading centre, Nijmegen gained increasing importance. In 1230, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII granted a charter to its inhabitants and so Nijmegen became a ‘free German imperial city’ in the Holy Roman Empire. The double-headed eagle and the emperor’s crown in Nijmegen’s coat of arms are remnants of this era.
Makers mark SS for: Severijn Schiff, registered 1762-1802, Nijmegen double-headed-eagle, N in a crowned shield for Nijmegen 1st standard silver, date letter A for 1792.


City of Roermond.
Image. Roermond, a municipality, and a diocese in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands. The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231. Roermond town centre has been designated as a conservation area. Through the centuries the town has filled the role of commercial centre, principal town in the duchy of Guelders and since 1559 it has served as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Roermond. The skyline of the historic town is dominated by the towers of its two churches: St. Christopher Cathedral and Roermond Minster or 'Munsterkerk' in Dutch. In addition to important churches, the town centre has many listed buildings and monuments. Around 1180–1543, Roermond belonged to the duchy of Guelders. In 1213 Roermond was destroyed by Otto IV of Brunswick, the Holy Roman Emperor and German King. By 1232 the city had been rebuilt, and was given its own seal, own reign, own mint, and its own court. The first mention of the monastery of the Franciscan Friars Minor, the Minderbroederklooster, was in 1309. In 1361, the Chapter of the Holy Spirit moved from St. Odiliënberg to Roermond. Around 1350, Roermond became the capital of the "Overkwartier van Gelre" (Upper Quarter of Gelre). In 1388, during the Hundred Years' War, a siege by the French occurred. A battle for the outer fortifications Buiten Op, destruction of these fortifications and the old parish church followed. In 1441, Roermond became a member of the Hanseatic League, and by 1472 acquired the right to mint its own coins. Between 1543–1702 the area was part of the Spanish Netherlands. On 23 April 1568 the Battle of Rheindalen occurred near Roermond, which signaled the start of the Eighty Years' War. In 1572, Roermond was occupied by the Dutch William the Silent, but recaptured by the Spanish duke Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo. Under Spanish rule Roermond became a bastion of the Counter-Reformation. On behalf of the Inquisition people were encouraged to report suspects of witchcraft and heresy. In 1613, 64 presumed witches were burnt on the Galgeberg hill near the Kapel in het Zand in Roermond, the biggest witch trial in the Netherlands ever. In 1632 the Dutch Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik conquered Venlo, Roermond and Maastricht during his famous "March along the Meuse". Attempts in the next years to annex Antwerp and Brussels failed, however. The northern Dutch were disappointed by the lack of local support. The Counter-Reformation had firmly reattached the local population to Roman Catholicism, and they now distrusted the Calvinist Northerners even more than they loathed the Spanish occupiers. Between 1632 and 1637, Roermond was under the control of the Dutch Republic, and again from 1702 to 1716. Between 1716 and 1794, it was part of the Austrian Netherlands within the Habsburg Monarchy. On 11 December 1792, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the French under General De Miranda conquered Roermond, but by 5 March 1793, was under Habsburg control again. The city was again occupied by the French on 5 April 1794 and officially became part of the French département Meuse-Inférieure from 1795 to 1814. In 1814, during the War of the Sixth Coalition Roermond was liberated by the Russians. After the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 Roermond became part of the new Kingdom of the Netherlands. The new province was to receive the name "Maastricht", after its capital. King William, who did not want the name Limburg to be lost, insisted that the name be changed to Limburg. As such, the name of the new province derived from the old duchy of Limburg that had existed until 1648 within the triangle Maastricht – Liège – Aachen. When the Netherlands and Belgium separated in 1830, there was support for adding Limburg to Belgium, but in the end (1839) the province was divided in two, with the eastern part going to the Netherlands and the western part to Belgium. From that time, Dutch Limburg was, as the new Duchy of Limburg, also part of the German Confederation.
. Town mark of Roermond, a fleur de Lis is based on the coat of arms
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Town mark of Roermond, makers’ mark FM for: Franciscus D. Matthei, registered 1764-1786, and a later tax mark, the hatchet, the 1853 duty mark for old silver objects of national origin returned to the trade. We assume Roermond used only 1st standard silver and never used year-letters.


City of Rotterdam.

Image. Rotterdam is a city in South Holland, the Netherlands, located geographically within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270 when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river and people settled around it for safety. In 1340 Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland and slowly grew into a major logistic and economic centre. The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, 'muddy' and a, 'water', thus 'muddy water') dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ('Schieland’s High Sea Dike') along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ('High Street'). On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Around the year 1350[citation needed], a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands, England and Germany, and to urbanize. The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Chateau-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).
Town mark for Rotterdam; 4 lion's passant facing left in four quarters above vertical bar in a crowned shield.
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Rotterdam city town mark variant 1785-1790, master's mark DB for: Abraham du Breuil, registered in Rotterdam during 1787-1811. Rotterdam used big and small year letters. The small year letters come in an oval shield. Gothic g for; 1789 (rotated 180 degrees). The other marks are the V in crowned shield, tax mark used 1814-1893 and the last vague mark (right hand corner) most likely the lion rampant in crowned shield or 1st standard province mark to indicate .934 fineness.

Caddy spoon Rotterdam
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Crowned V for large items; duty mark for foreign and other untaxed objects used 1814-1893. This duty mark does not give any guarantee of a precious metal standard of fineness. This mark has been used on metal with a 250 minimum silver content as a duty mark. This mark was destined for all imported, unmarked and invalid marked objects of foreign, national and unknown origin. Upon the invalidation of the hallmarks of Louis Napoleon's kingdom of Holland and those of the French Empire in 1816, this mark also has been used as a tax free census mark. Year-letter IJ for Rotterdam 1805, Town mark Rotterdam, maker’s mark PI for: Pieter Janse or Pieter Janses (born1779- registered till around 1816). 2nd standard silver, no lion rampant.

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The maker's mark is IS above a star for; Johannes Jansen (I*S) registered in Rotterdam 1773-1818, followed by the standard province mark the lion rampant in a crowned shield 934/000 fineness, the town mark of Rotterdam; 4 lion's passant facing left in four quarters above vertical bar in a crowned shield.The year letter script G for 1789.





City of Schoonhoven.
Image.Schoonhoven is a city and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Circa 1220 a castle was built on the north side of little stream Zevender, near its mouth at the Lek River and Schoonhoven formed near the castle. The oldest reference to Schoonhoven is on a document from 1247 where the town is called Sconhoven. In 1280, it was granted city rights. Around 1350, the city walls and gates were added to Schoonhoven. Its economy was dependent on shipping, brewing, fishing and agriculture. Schoonhoven was also the marketplace for the region. In 1518 the castle burned down and its remnants were removed in subsequent decades. Between 1582 and 1601 the city's defense walls were renewed and expanded to include the shipyards as well. And following the Disaster Year of 1672, they were reinforced again and expanded on the west and north sides.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rampjaar
Yet in 1816, when bastion fortifications were no longer relevant to the warfare of the time, they were mostly demolished and made way for a cemetery and park.In 1860 the city had 2900 inhabitants. Schoonhoven is renowned for its silver, hence it is nicknamed Zilverstad ("Silver City"). Since the 17th century silver smiths have already been present here. Today there are a lot of silver trade possibilities and Schoonhoven is home of the Nederlands Zilvermuseum(Dutch Silver Museum) and the International Silver School. Another less known tradition in Schoonhoven is that of clock making. There are still small scale clock makers. Some of them can be visited. A beautiful example of large clockwork is the Van den Gheyn Beiaard on the medieval town hall of Schoonhoven.
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Shield with four lion's rampant facing left; the guild city mark of Schoonhoven; without province mark and for 2nd standard silver or Kleine keur 83.3% pure silver used. The city mark with flattened round shield base for 1777
The ˜dove" maker's mark has been contributed to: Abraham Eduart Hoek (1768-1793) and to Jan van Geelen 1759/60-1784 (died 1792). Both silversmiths used a dove as their maker's mark. Date letter D for 1777.
Found on; Dutch State Bible (Statenbijbel), silver plates & clasps.
NB.The city mark of Schoonhoven is notoriously unclear, and always without a crown and based upon for lions rampant and with many variations, see variations Schoonhoven city marks used 1802-1804:
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Town mark Schoonhoven for 1778-1781, date letter F for 1779, maker’s mark a heart in a square shield for: Andries Graves Kooiman (Adrianisz) (Born in Langerak 1755- died Schoonhoven 1809)
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Silver sifter made by Bartholomeus Smits
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Year letter I for 1782, makers mark BS for: Bartholomeus Smits registered 1756-1803, town mark Schoonhoven.




City of Sneek.
Image. Sneek ; (West Frisian: Snits) is a city southwest of Leeuwarden and seat of the former municipality of Sneek in the province of Friesland (Netherlands). As for 2011 it is part of the municipality Súdwest Fryslân. The city has approximately 33,000 inhabitants. Sneek is situated in Southwest-Friesland, close to the Sneekermeer(lake) and is well known for its canals, the Waterpoort (Watergate, the symbol of the city), and watersport (Sneekweek). Sneek is one of the Friese elf steden (Eleven cities). The city is very important for the southwest area of Friesland (the "Zuidwesthoek").
Sneek was founded in the 10th century on a sandy peninsula at the crossing site of dike with an important waterway (called the Magna Fossa in old documents). This waterway was dug when the former Middelzee silted up. The dike can still be traced in the current street pattern and street names like "Hemdijk", "Oude Dijk" and "Oosterdijk". Sneek received several city rights in the 13th century, which became official in 1456. Sneek was now one of the eleven Frisian cities. This was also the beginning of a period of blooming trade for the city that would last until about 1550. In 1492 construction of a moat and wall around the city began. In those days Sneek was the only walled city in Friesland. The waterpoort and the bolwerk remain today.
Image. Sneek town mark: three superposed crowns and as of 1749 in a crowned shield. Image
From 1764 the town mark is changed. The town mark is base on the city coat of arms; a divided crowned shield, at the left the Frisian eagle and on the right three crowns.
Image. Town mark of Sneek, makers mark a clover &crown for: Johannes de Vries, registered 1735-1769, province mark Friesland, 1st standard silver 934/1000, date letter R for: 1752


City of Utrecht.
Image. Utrecht is the capital and most populous city in the Dutch province of Utrecht. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages. It has been the religious center of the Netherlands since the 8th century. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was succeeded by Amsterdam as the country's cultural center and most populous city.In 1579 the northern seven provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they decided to join forces against Spanish rule. The Union of Utrecht is seen as the beginning of the Dutch Republic. In 1580 the new and predominantly Protestant state abolished the bishoprics, including the archbishopric of Utrecht. The stadtholders disapproved of the independent course of the Utrecht bourgeoisie and brought the city under much more direct control of the republic; which shifted the power towards its dominant province Holland. This was the start of a long period of stagnation of trade and development in Utrecht. Utrecht remained an atypical city in the new republic with about 40% Catholic in the mid-17th century, and even more among the elite groups, who included many rural nobility and gentry with town houses there. The fortified city temporarily fell to the French invasion in 1672 (the Disaster Year); where the French invasion was only stopped west of Utrecht at the Old Hollandic Waterline. In 1674, only two years after the French left, the centre of Utrecht was struck by a tornado. In 1713, Utrecht hosted one of the first international peace negotiations when the Treaty of Utrecht settled the War of the Spanish Succession. Since 1723 Utrecht became the centre of the non-Roman Old Catholic Churches in the world.
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Image. Hatchet,later tax mark, makers mark AVG for: Adrianus van Gelder, registered 1784-1811, Utrecht town mark struck twice to indicate 1st standard silver. (town mark + province mark of Utrecht), year letter H for 1791
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In 1739 the 2nd standard mark introduced, the meaning of the letter N, top right shield is not known.Combined town mark Utrecht and date letter G for:1790




City of Vlissingen (Flushing).
Image. Vlissingen; Zeelandic: Vlissienge; historical name in English: Flushing is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. With its strategic location between the Scheldt river and the North Sea, Vlissingen has been an important harbor for centuries. It was granted city rights in 1315. In the 17th century Vlissingen was a main harbor for ships of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). It is also known as the birthplace of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. The fishermen’s hamlet that came into existence at the estuary of the Schelde around AD 620 has grown over its 1,400-year history into the third-most important port of the Netherlands. The Counts of Holland and Zeeland had the first harbours dug. Over the centuries, Vlissingen developed into a hub for fishing, especially the herring fishery, commerce, privateering and the slave trade. During the heyday of the Dutch Golden Age, ships from Vlissingen set sail for the various outposts of the Dutch colonial empire and contributed to the world power of The Seven Provinces. The derivation of the name Vlissingen is unclear, though most scholars relate the name to the word fles (bottle) in one way or another. According to one story, when saint Willibrord landed in Vlissingen with a bottle in the 7th century, he shared its contents with the beggars he found there while trying to convert them. A miracle occurred, familiar to readers of hagiography, when the contents of the bottle did not diminish. When the bishop realised the beggars did not want to listen to his words, he gave them his bottle. After that, he supposedly called the city Flessinghe. Another source states that the name had its origins in an old ferry-service house, on which a bottle was attached by way of a sign. The monk Jacob van Dreischor, who visited the city in 967, then apparently called the ferry-house het veer aan de Flesse (the ferry at the Bottle). Because many cities in the region later received the appendix -inge, the name, according to this etymology, evolved to Vles-inge. According to another source, the name was derived from the Danish word Vles, which means tides.The eastern cape of Novaya Zemlya, Cape Flissingsky was named after the city in 1596 by Willem Barentsz. Vlissingen was historically called "Flushing" in English. In the 17th century
Vlissingen was important enough to be a town that English speakers referred to and that had acquired its own English name. For example, Samuel Pepys referred to the town as "Flushing" in his diaries. In 1673 Sir William Temple referred to Vlissingen as "Flushing" once and "Flussingue" twice in his book about the Netherlands.] Some English writers in the Netherlands also used the Dutch name.Flushing, originally a Dutch colonial village and now part of Queens, New York City, was first called Vlissingen after the town in the Netherlands. The English settlers who also came to live in the village[6] shortened the name to "Vlissing" and then began to call it by its English name, Flushing, and this continued and grew after the conquest of New Netherland. The corruption of "Vlissingen" into "Flushing" did not occur after the conquest of New Netherland, but in England well before then. This village was the site of the Flushing Remonstrance. The village of Flushing in Cornwall was also named after Vlissingen. Originally named Nankersey, the village was given its name by Dutch engineers from Vlissingen in the Netherlands who built the three main quays in the village.
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Image Town mark of Vlissingen
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Vlissingen,year letter C for; 1786, town mark, bottle in oval for Vlissingen and makers mark LVDW for: Lambrecht van der Woord, registered 1780-...?, and later tax mark.



City of Woerden.
Image. Woerden is a city and a municipality in the central Netherlands, central located between Amsterdam, Rotterdam. The river Oude Rijn used to flow through the city center of Woerden, but in 1960 the old river was diverted around the city center. The city has a long and rich history in cheese making and trading; for years Gouda cheese for domestic and international use has been produced in this region. Woerden still holds its authentic (since 1885) cheese market at the market place in its center. The reign of Charles V was a period of relative peace and prosperity for Woerden, despite religious unrest. In April 1522 Charles V introduced the Inquisition in the Low Countries. Johannes Pistorius Woerdensis (Jan de Bakker), a catholic priest, was the first preacher in the Northern Netherlands to be martyred as a direct result of his religious beliefs. The city magistrates of Woerden were tolerant towards the Lutheran confession. In 1566 this resulted in a confrontation with duke Eric of Brunswick, who was Lord of Woerden at that time. In later history, the town saw occupation by the Spanish (1575, 1576) and the French (1672, 1673 and particularly disastrous in 1813).
Image. Town mark Woerden based on the coat of arms.
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Woerden makers mark VG for: Johan van Genderen, registered 1792-1807, unclear town mark of Woerden, year letter C for; 1801


City of Zierikzee
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Zierikzee is a small city, located on the former island of Schouwen in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland, and lies about 26 km southwest of Hellevoetsluis. Zierikzee received city rights in 1248 and was an independent municipality until 1997.
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Until 1737 town mark from Zierikzee was indicated by a crowned letter Z.
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Town mark of Zierikzee based on coat of arms, as of 1737. From 1737 the town mark was replaced by a lion rampant going left, in a shield flanked by the letter "Z" and surmounted by a cross in a square.
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Makers mark IE crowned for; Jan Eyermeet 1718…..?, town mark Zierikzee, year letter W, around 1750, unfortunately not much is known about those year letters.







City of Zwolle.
Image. Zwolle is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. Archaeological findings indicate that the area surrounding Zwolle has been inhabited for a long time. A woodhenge that was found in the Zwolle-Zuid suburb in 1993 was dated to the Bronze Age period. During the Roman era, the area was inhabited by Salian Franks.
The modern city was founded around 800 A.D. by Frisian merchants and troops of Charlemagne.[8] The name Zwolleis derived from the word Suolle, which means "hill" (cf. the English cognate verb "to swell"). This refers to an incline in the landscape between the four rivers surrounding the city, IJssel, Vecht, Aa and Zwarte Water. The hill was the only piece of land that would remain dry during the frequent floodings of the rivers. Zwolle was established on that incline.
A document mentions the existence of a parish church dedicated to St Michael. That church, the Grote or Sint Michaëlskerk (big or Saint Michael Church), was renovated in the first half of the 15th century and exists to this day. The church contains a richly carved pulpit, the work of Adam Straes van Weilborch (about 1620), some good carving and an exquisite organ (1721).
On August 31, 1230, the bishop of Utrecht granted Zwolle city rights. Zwolle became a member of the Hanseatic league in 1294, and in 1361 joined the war between the Hanseatic League and Valdemar IV of Denmark. In the 1370 Treaty of Stralsund that ended the war, Zwolle was awarded a vitte, a trade colony, in Scania, then part of Denmark. Zwolle's golden age came in the 15th century. Between 1402 and 1450, the city's Gross Regional Product multiplied by about six.In the 15th century Zwolle develops into one of the most powerful cities of Hanseatic League.
In July 1324 and October 1361, regional noblemen set fire to Zwolle. In the 1324 fire, only nine buildings escaped the flames. Zwolle was also, with Deventer, one of the centers of the Brethren of the Common Life, a monastic movement. Three miles from Zwolle, on a slight eminence called the Agnietenberg, (hill of St Agnes), once stood the Augustinian convent in which Thomas à Kempis spent the greatest part of his life and died (in 1471). Zwolle had a considerable trade by river, a large fish market, and the most important cattle market in the Netherlands after Rotterdam. The more important industries comprised cotton manufactures, iron works, boat-building, dyeing and bleaching, tanning, rope-making, and salt-making.
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The town mark of Zwolle is based on the coat of arms.Town mark Zwolle crowned for 1st standard or “grote keur”934/1000 and town mark without crown, 3rd standard silver 833/1000 fineness.
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Town mark with R.D short for ‘Rijks Daalder’(coinsilver) 892/1000 fineness, 2nd standard.
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Zwolle R.D. 2nd standard silver 892/1000, ,masters mark a ship with sails for:Willem Hermen Wenink, registered 1792-1811, year-letter T for 1782-1783






City of Zutphen.

Image. Zutphen is a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. It lies some 30 km north-east of Arnhem, on the Eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel. The name Zutphen (first mentioned in the eleventh century) appears to mean 'zuid-veen', or in English, south-fen. About 300 AD a Germanic settlement was the first permanent town on a complex of low river dunes. Whereas many such settlements were abandoned in the early Middle Ages, Zutphen on its strategic confluence of IJssel and Berkelstayed. After the incorporation of the IJssel lands in Charlemagne's Francia, Zutphen became a local centre of governance under a count. The Normans raided and ravaged it in 882. Afterwards a circular fortress was built to protect the budding town against Viking attacks. In the eleventh century Zutphen was a royal residence for a number of years; a pfalz was built, together with a largechapter church, the predecessor of the present St. Walburgis. The counts of Zutphen acquired a lot of power, until the line of counts became extinct in the twelfth century. After the death of her father and her brother, Ermgard, the heiress of Zutphen married the count of Guelders; her son Henry I, Count of Guelders was the first to wear both titles.The settlement received town rights between 1191 and 1196, making it one of the oldest towns in the country. This allowed it to self govern and have a judicial court. Only Utrecht, and Deventer preceded it in receiving town rights. Zutphen, in turn, became the mother town of several other towns in Guelders, such as Arnhem, Doetinchem,Doesburg, Lochem, Harderwijk, Venlo and Emmerich. It also became part of the Hanseatic League, a group of towns with great wealth; this league was the economic centre in that part of Europe. During the 12th century coins were minted in Zutphen by the Counts of Guelders and Zutphen: Henry I (circa 1150-1181) and Otto I (1182-1207). Although the city had minting rights for a few centuries this was only actively used during four periods: 1478-1480, 1582-1583, 1604-1605 and 1687-1692. The largest and oldest church of the city is the St. Walburgis (Saint Walpurga) church, which originally dates from the eleventh century. The present Gothic building contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a fourteenth-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font (1527), and a monument to the Van Heeckeren family (1700). The chapter-house of library ("Librije") contains a pre-Reformation library which includes some valuable manuscripts andincunabula. It is considered one of only 5 remaining medieval libraries in Europe (the other 4 being in England and Italy). The old books are still chained to their ancient wooden desk, a habit of centuries ago, dating from the times when the library was a "public library" and the chains prevented the books from being stolen. Having been fortified the town withstood several sieges, specially during the wars of freedom waged by the Dutch against Spain, the most celebrated fight under its walls being the Battle of Zutphen in September 1586 when Sir Philip Sidney was mortally wounded. Taken by the Spanish in 1587 by the treachery of the English commander Rowland York, Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the Netherlands. Its fortifications were dismantled in 1874. In World War II the town was bombed several times by the allied forces because the bridge over the IJssel was vital to support the German troops at Arnhem after the Operation Market Garden. After two weeks of battle the town was liberated on the 14th of April 1945. After the war a renovation program started. Nowadays Zutphen has one of the best preserved medieval town centres of North-Western Europe, including the remains of the medieval town wall and a few hundred buildings dating from the 13th - 15th century.
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Town mark of Zuthpen, Greek cross, based on the coat of arms, for 2nd standard silver. Town mark Zutphen,Greek cross under a lion passant, facing right for 1st standard silver 934/000, not often seen.
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Makers mark AVS for: Anthony van Sandbergen registered 1770-1800, town mark Zutphen for 2nd standard silver , date letter 6th alphabet H=1782. After his death in 1800 his widow continued to use the AVS mark 1800-1807.


Gratitude; Marc Rosenberg Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen IV/Ausland und Byzanz
Berlin 1928 and Mr.Jan Schipper/ http://www.zilverstudie.nl and many others

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Redeem and taxmark of 1795

Postby oel » Fri May 17, 2013 2:36 am

In 1795 the Low Countries ( Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) are conquered and occupied by the French armies. The Austrian Netherlands, the Prince Bishopric of Liege, Luxemburg and the present Limburg province are annexed by the French Republic. Proclamation of the Batavian Republic, a French satellite state. The Batavian Republic (Dutch: Bataafse Republiek) was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795, and ended on June 5, 1806, with the accession of Louis Bonaparte to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland.
In 1795 it was determined by the then French rulers, by way of taxation in the provinces of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, that all gold and silver objects had to be handed in to be melted down, with some exceptions including spoons and forks. The objects had to be handed in, being an extra tax, to pay for the French Republic's war debts. If the owners would like to keep those silver objects, they also could choose to pay in cash for the value of the metal. As a proof of the fact that the object had been redeemed, a tax paid mark was punched on the object, in general, the date letter used in 1795. The city of Alkmaar punched a flowery script letter L and Amsterdam used a smaller version of the going date letter L. The Hague used date letter Y uncrowned and Utrecht used a different mark.
The old province mark of Holland used for 1st standard of silver temporarily changed, only for a few months, into a smaller version, still being a lion rampant but uncrowned and for new objects only.
NB. I personally believe that during turmoil important silver objects are hidden, kept out of sight for a while. Wealthy merchants and other could pay for the value of the metal. Others may have punched a ˜fake˜ date letter to fool the French. Through the Ages silver objects always have been melted down, to be made back into coins and bars, to generate hard cash, even today as we write.

An example for Amsterdam tax paid during the year of 1795
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From left to right:
Amsterdam date letter D for 1788; Amsterdam city guild mark (upside down); Small sized letter L, tax paid mark for Amsterdam punched in 1795; Crowned V for large items; duty mark for foreign and other untaxed objects used 1814-1893. This duty mark does not give any guarantee of a precious metal standard of fineness. This mark has been used on metal with a 250 minimum silver content as a duty mark. This mark was destined for all imported, unmarked and invalid marked objects of foreign, national and unknown origin. Upon the invalidation of the hallmarks of Louis Napoleon's kingdom of Holland and those of the French Empire in 1816, this mark also has been used as a tax free census mark; Province of Holland mark, lion rampant crowned (upside down)

Province of Utrecht, used Utrecht's hat of Liberty on a stick planted in the ground as redeem and taxmark;
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City of Middelburg redeem date letter U for 1795

Postby oel » Wed Jun 26, 2013 9:07 pm

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City mark, double headed eagle, for the city of Middelburg in the province of Zeeland.
The date letter Q for 1788 and redeem and tax mark letter U (small size) for 1795.
Maker's mark; a gentleman between the letters LP, for Lodewijk Potmans, registered in the city of Middelburg during 1774-1797

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Nijmegen city guild marks double headed Eagle, Crowned N

Postby oel » Thu Jul 04, 2013 6:55 pm

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Nijmegen city guild/standard mark

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Nijmegen date letter Crowned O for 1722-1723

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The wolf looking backwards; Bernt Wolff Nijmegen 1710-1733.


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Example city of Nijmegen guild marks.

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Delft city guild mark

Postby oel » Sat Apr 19, 2014 10:52 pm

A PAIR OF LOUIS XVI SILVER CANDLESTICKS
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Delft city guild mark used 1750-1807

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Date letter A in crowned shield for 1778 or perhaps 1754.

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Makers'mark D:G for Dirk van de Goorberg registered 1747-1811

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Lion Rampant in crowned shield, the province of Holland standard mark to indicate silver 1st standard=.934 fineness

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City guild mark of Rotterdam

Postby oel » Sun Apr 20, 2014 7:56 pm

City guild mark for Rotterdam; 4 lion's passant facing left in four quarters above vertical bar in a crowned shield.
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Silver chatelaine hook or belt hook. The sizes are; 10.7cm x 4.3cm x 2.4cm weight 52 gram.
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Rotterdam city guild mark variant 1785-1790, master's mark DB for: Abraham du Breuil, registered in Rotterdam during 1787-1811.
Rotterdam used big and small year letters. The small year letters come in an oval shield.
Gothic g for; 1789 (rotated 180 degrees)

The other marks are the V in crowned shield, tax mark used 1814-1893 and the last vague mark most likely the lion rampant in crowned shield or 1st standard province mark to indicate .934 fineness.

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Gorinchem province (zuid)Holland town mark late 18th century

Postby oel » Wed Nov 19, 2014 11:37 am

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The guild city mark of Gorinchem (province (zuid)Holland) has been based upon two crenelated beams in a shield with a crown but also seen without crown. At the end of the 18th century the two crenelated beams were simplified into a wave pattern. Gorinchem is pronounced Gorcum and often spelled Gorcum.
The maker's mark IS for; Jacobus Schrader Sr registered in Gorcum from 1773-1811. Known flatware maker.
The crowned date letter for 2 st standard of silver 875/1000 fineness, X for 1780 or 1804.


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Middelburg town mark late 18th-early 19th century

Postby oel » Wed Nov 19, 2014 11:42 am

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The crown V is a later tax mark used 1814-1893, for more information see:
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=32028

Guild city mark of Middelburg (province Zeeland) with combined date letter U for 1795 (2nd standard or 874.64/1000 fineness+
The maker’s mark AI between an anchor for: Anthonie Janse registered in Middelburg 1787-1811.

The city guild mark of Middelburg is based on the coat of arms: a double-headed (crowned) eagle in a shield. There are various versions of the city mark known. Reference book; J. de Bree Zeeuws Zilver.

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Re: Middelburg 2nd half 18th century

Postby oel » Sun Aug 26, 2018 10:13 am

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Loderein box, town mark for the city of Middelburg province of Zeeland, 2nd half 18th century, 2nd standard or coin silver 10 penningen 16 greinen (893/1000), castle tower together with year letter G for 1770. Maker's mark GS under a star for for Gerard Stertzenbach registered in Middelburg 1753-1786. Weight 14-15 gram, height 2,5 cm, width 3 cm,depth 2,7 cm.

Peter.


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