City Marks used by the various silver & gold guilds.Variations are possible and some cities used other marks/variations during a certain time period. In the beginning only one silver standard was used normally of very high fineness. Later two, sometimes three standards were use 1st standard (Grote keur) and 2nd standard (Kleine keur)
Some cities like Gouda have used an uncrowned city mark for 2nd standard silver.
Leijden's 1st standard: crowned crossed keys and 2nd standard, first mentioned in 1661, one key with date letter attached.
As of 1663 the 1st standard for objects; maker's mark, city mark crowned together with a province standard mark crowned and a year-letter. On small object, light weight often maker's mark only. The 2nd standard introduced 1664; makers' mark, city mark crowned or uncrowned and sometimes with or without date letter.
Amsterdam 2nd standard as of 1664 ; small sized city mark, small sized province standard mark uncrowned, small type of date letter until 1716. From 1716 till 1734 no year letter was used. City of Alkmaar.
.Alkmaar is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of Noord Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination. The earliest mention of the name Alkmaar is in a 10th-century document. As the village grew into a town, it was granted city rights in 1254. The oldest part of Alkmaar lies on an ancient sand bank that afforded some protection from inundation during medieval times. Even so, it is only a couple of metres above the surrounding region, which consists of some of the oldest polders in existence. In 1573 the city underwent a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Don Fadrique, son of the Duke of Alva. The citizens sent urgent messages for help to the Prince of Orange; he responded by promising to open the floodgates of the dykes and flood the region if the need arose, which despite the protestations of the peasantry, fearful for their harvest, he proceeded to do. Some of his dispatches fell into the hands of Don Fadrique, and, with the waters beginning to rise; the Spaniards raised the siege and fled. It was a turning point in the Eighty Years War and gave rise to the expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie ("Victory begins at Alkmaar"). The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day the siege ended. In 1799, during the French revolutionary wars, an Anglo-Russian expeditionary force captured the city but was ultimately defeated in the Battle of Castricum. The town mark of Alkmaar is based on the coat of arms; a stronghold/castle tower
Makers mark WH conjoined for: Willem Hooglander Sr. (has been faked), town mark Alkmaar (rotated 90degrees), lion rampant in a crowned shield, province of Holland 1st standard mark silver 934/1000 fineness, date letter script D for; 1738-1739City of Arnhem
The city of Arnhem had its real origins in 1233 when Otto II, count of Guelders from Zutphen, conferred city rights on the town, which had belonged to the abbey of Prüm, settled in, and fortified it. Arnhem entered the Hanseatic League in 1443. In 1473, it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. In 1514, Charles of Egmond, duke of Guelders, took it from the dukes of Burgundy; in 1543, it fell to the emperor Charles V. As capital of the so-called "Kwartier van Veluwe" it joined the Union of Utrecht during the Eighty years war in 1579. After its capture from the Spanish forces by Dutch and English troops in 1585 the city became part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. The French occupied the town 1672–74; from 1795 to 1813, it was re-occupied by the French, by both revolutionary and imperial forces. In the early 19th century, the former fortifications were almost completely dismantled, to give space for town expansion.
The town mark of Arnhem based on the city coat of arms a double headed eagle. Maker’s mark R.R for Rutger Reinder registered 1769-1811, date letter L (around 1782), HOL 1st standard mark.City of Bolsward. (used 1735)
The town mark based on the coat of arms. The town is founded on three artificial dwelling hills, the first of which was built some time before Christ. Bolsward was a trading city with a port in the Middle Ages. The Middelzee or Middle sea connected the port once to the North Sea, but this connection was lost when the Middle sea was reclaimed from the sea; a canal was then cut to the Zuider Zee. The Middelzee (Dutch for "middle sea"; West Frisian: Middelsee), also called Bordine, was the estuary mouth of the River Boorn (West Frisian: Boarn) now in the Dutch province of Friesland. It ran from as far south as Sneek northward to the Wadden Sea and marked the border between main Frisian regions of Westergoa and Eastergoa. Other historical names for the Middelzee include Bordaa, Borndiep, Boerdiep, and Bordena. Gradually the Middelzee silted up, forming the nije lannen ("new lands"). One village is called Nijlân, literally meaning "new land", and also there are several villages where the lands formerly of the Middelzee are still called it Nijlân. It can still be recognized as new land since there are only a small number of villages lying in the area of the former Middelzee. The fertile sea clay bottom is mostly used as meadow land but also Leeuwarden Air Base is situated on the new lands. The border between Eastergoa and Westergoa in the former Middlezee is now drained by the River Zwette (West Frisian: Swette), that runs from Sneek to Leeuwarden, but which once reached the southern edge of Het Bildt. By the fifteenth century the Middelzee was reduced to a funnel shape along Frisia's north coast and further silting of the remaining part rendered it unusable. From the early sixteenth century the polder of Het Bildt was formed in that funnel, and is now a Frisian municipality that fills the mouth of what once was the Middelzee. The name Middelzee is still used as a name for an administrative coalition between the so-called Middelzee municipalities of Het Bildt, Ferwerderadeel, Leeuwarderadeel, and Menaldumadeel.
The town of Bolsward is mentioned in 725, when it was situated on the Middlesea. As a trading city, Bolsward was granted city rights by Philip the Good in 1455. Bolsward was made a member of the Hanseatic league in 1422. It was the center of the former municipality named Bolsward, before that was merged into Súdwest Fryslân. Silver from Bolsward is often with maker’s mark only, without town mark and date letter.
Makers mark EAT conjoined for: Egbartus Teeklenburg, registered in Bolsward 1721-1751
Province Friesland 1st standard mark silver 934/1000 fineness
Friesian year letter V for 1735Gratitude Mr.Jan Schipper/ http://www.zilverstudie.nl City of Boxmeer
.Boxmeer is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It incorporates the former municipality of Beugen en Rijkevoort and that of Vierlingsbeek. In Overloon is the Overloon War Museum. The goat of Boxmeer. The weapon is derived from the ships seal, which at least in in the 18th century already showed a Goat.
The goat in the municipal coat of arms is named after Jan Bok, the first Free Lord of Boxmeer. Jan Bok was a knight from the village of Meer, the present Meerbusch in Germany.
The village of Meer belonged to the Duchy of Guelders. Jan Bok built around the 13th century, a castle in De Meere, a backwater which today is the moat of the castle of Boxmeerse. According to a local historian Jan Bok, in fact was named Jan Buch. The name of the Lord of Boxmeer was spelled wrong in the thirteenth century Acts from Buch to Buck, Bock, and ultimately to Bok. The name Buch is explained by the fact that the original home of Knight Jan was located in a bend (Bucht) of the river Rhine. The coat of arms that Jan Buch used was not a goat, but the “Gelderse Leeuw” of the Duchy of Guelders.
The town mark of Boxmeer is based on the coat of arms.From left to right; Lion rampant; the Arms of ‘de Heren van Bergh’, goat city silver mark of Boxmeer, Makers mark RR for : Rutger J. Raab, born 1757- active till 1827, made turn 18th century, Boxmeer used no date letters.City of Breda
In the 11th century, Breda was a direct fief of the Holy Roman Emperor, its earliest known lord being Henry of Brunesheim (1080–1125). The city of Breda obtained a municipal charter in 1252. After that Breda had the rights to build fortifications. The city constructed brick walls and Roman-style gates.In 1327 Adelheid of Gaveren Breda sold Breda to John III, Duke of Brabant. In 1350, the fief was resold to John II of Wassenaar (d. 1377). In 1403 the heiress of his line, Johanna of Polanen (1392–1445), married Engelbert I of Nassau (1370–1442) (his sarcophagus is in the Grote Kerk in Breda). Through her, the city came into the possession of the house of Nassau, where it remained until 1795, passing to William I of Orange (1533–1584), stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht and leader of the Dutch revolt. Thus the baron of Breda was also count of Nassau, Germany, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the Dutch Republic (from 1572–1650, 1672–1702, 1747–1795). Breda remained part of the barony Breda until it was taken by French revolutionary forces in 1795.
The town mark of Breda is based on the coat of arms; three Andreas crosses, one Andreas cross under 2 horizontal crosses, seen crowned and uncrowned. Date letter F for 1807, makers mark HS for; Henricus F. Simon, the number 7 in a crowned shield =1807, town mark Breda.City of Delft
. The city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the 'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court. From a rural village in the early Middle Ages Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century (1246) received its charter. (For some more information about the early development, see Gracht).The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation of the country, which struggle is known as the Eighty Years' War. By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581 Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The town mark of Delft is based on a vertical bar with wavy horizontal stripes, to inicate canal"Oude Delft" Canal/Gracht/Delf. Makers mark IT for: Johannes Tiddens, registered 1718-1739, date letter A for 1730, 1st standard silver, town mark Delft. Delft used upper case year letters for solid big item. Delft used lower case year letter for small items like loderein box. In combination with big & small town mark. See:https://imageshack.com/a/Kwev/1https://imageshack.com/a/J0Nv/1
NB the small town mark of Delft may also seem strange here, the vertical bar (watercourse) seems proportionally divided into three small parts. In my opinion, Delft worked from 1761 to .... 1767 .... with poor quality / damaged stamps.CB
for Cornelis Brouwer registered in Delft 1750-1771, lower case year letter h for 1761City of Den Haag/The Hague
. The Counts’ Hedge. Though officially called Den Haag, the locals often refer to it as ‘s-Gravenhage, literally: 'The Counts' Hedge'. The Counts of Holland enjoyed hunting and took special interest in the area’s vast forests that reached from Gravenzande to Leiden in the Middle Ages, the remains of which are now known as the Haagse Bos. Originally basing themselves near the pond now known as the Hofvijver in the centre of The Hague, in the 13th century Count Willem II built the Binnenhof, or current houses of parliament, on the same spot. Lacking city rights, The Hague was unable to build the traditional wall and moat system of the day, so a town hall was built which can still be seen today in the Groenmarkt.
The keys to the city
The Hague is first chartered as a village called Die Haghe, until Louis Napoleon, King of the Netherlands from 1806, took entry. He insisted that by the following day he 'be offered the keys of the city at a ceremony in The Hague.' Without walls, or even a gate, the city couldn’t offer much in the line of actual keys. In some haste the elders asked the silversmith François Simons to produce two gilded silver keys which were offered to the king on an embroidered cushion. A few months later Napoleon proclaimed The Hague 'third city of the kingdom'.
The town mark of The Hague/Den Haag/’s Gravenhage is based on the coat of arms, the stork from 1450-1581 stork in a castle gate, 1582-1807 stork with eel in beak in crowned shield. The Hague date letter S for 1764, Stork with eel, 1st standard silver 934/1000, makers mark G.T for: Gregorius van der Toorn II, registered 1738-1768. NB. The Hague marked 2nd standard silver or kleine keur
; town mark, the stork without crown, lion rampant without crown and the year letter without an crown.City of Deventer
. Deventer was probably founded around 768 by the English missionary Lebuinus, who built a wooden church on the east bank of the river IJssel. In January 772 the sack and burning of this church by a Saxon expedition was the cause for the first punitive war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, in which, in retribution, the Irminsul (sacred tree) was destroyed. This was not the first human settlement at the location; between 1981 and 2006, remains of a Bronze Age settlement (dated to c.400 CE) were excavated at Colmschate, 4 km east of the current city. The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to c. 1200. The village of Deventer, already important because of a trading road crossing the river IJssel, was looted and burnt down by the Vikings in 882. It was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall (in the street Stenen Wal remains of this wall have been excavated and restored). Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, which was capable of accommodating large ships. The city eventually joined the Hanseatic League. One of the commodities it traded in, dried haddock and cod from Norway, gave the citizens the nickname they carry to this day: "Deventer Stokvis" In the 15th century, Deventer had a common mint, where coins for the three IJssel cities Deventer, Zwolle, and Kampen were made.
The town mark for Deventer is based on the coat of arms: single-headed eagle. This Deventer town mark is often confused with that of Arnhem, Leeuwarden, Middelburg or Nijmegen, where a double-headed eagle was used as town mark. Maker’s mark .W.S. for; Willem Scholten registered 1776-1809, the single-headed eagle town mark Deventer for 2nd standard silver, date letter 4th alphabet G=1779.City of Dokkum
Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland. The best known event in Dokkum's history is the assassination of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface in 754. Oliver of Cologne preached the Fifth Crusade in Dokkum in 1214 and Dokkum sent a contingent; the crescent in the coat of arms of Dokkum refers to this event. Dokkum acquired city rights in 1298. In 1572 Dokkum was sacked by the Spaniards after it had joined the Dutch Revolt. In 1597, the Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum. However, it was moved to Harlingen in 1645.
City of Dokkum, the town mark is based on the coat of arms, three stars under a crescent moon. Double lion rampant, 1st standard mark province of Friesland silver 934/1000, date letter Z for Friesland 1777, makers mark ER for: Eise Ruardi (gratitude Zilverstudie.nl)City of Dordrecht
. The city was formed along the Thure river, in the midst of peat swamps. This river was a branch of the river Dubbel and ran approximately near the current Bagijnhof. The first reference to Dordrecht was made in 846 in the Annals of Xanten for the Years 844-862 where the author notes how the Northmen (Vikings) plundered eastern and western Frisia and set fire to the town of Dordrecht. Around 1120 reference to Dordrecht was made by a remark that count Dirk IV was murdered 1049 near "Thuredrech".Dordrecht was granted city rights by William I, Count of Holland, in 1220, making it the oldest city in the present province of South Holland. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Dordrecht developed into an important market city because of its strategic location. It traded primarily in wine, wood and cereals. Dordrecht was made even more important when it was given staple right in 1299. In 1253 a Latin school was founded in Dordrecht. It still exists today as the Johan de Witt Gymnasium and is the oldest gymnasium in the Netherlands. On 18–19 November 1421, the Saint Elisabeth's flood flooded large parts of southern Holland, causing Dordrecht to become an island. It was commonly said that over 10,000 people died in the flood, but recent research indicates that it was probably less than 200 people. In the 18th century, the importance of Dordrecht began to wane, and Rotterdam became the main city in the region. Yet throughout the centuries, Dordrecht held a key position in the defence of Holland. It hosted an army division well into the 20th century.
City of Dordrecht silver guild used a crowned rose as town mark, similar to which the city of Norwich (UK) used in the late 16th and at the beginning of the 17th century, the town marks was a crowned rose which was later replaced by a rose alone. At the end of the 18th century Dordrecht used a rose uncrowned with leaves.
Makers mark AWR conjoined for; Adriaan Wor, date letter F for Dordrecht 1718, lion rampant in a crowned shield, the Holland province 1st standard mark (934/1000), crowned rose the city silver mark of DordrechtThe city of Einhoven.
. Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. The written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Endehoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside of the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liège. Around 1388, the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Guelders. The reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 it fell again: its defense works having been neglected due to poverty. A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished. Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution.
Eindhoven never had an official silver guild and some silversmiths of Eindhoven were known to apply their own version of the town mark based on the coat of arms being three posthorns. The maker’s mark FO crowned could be for; F. van Osch, hence the Ox head.The hatchet is a later tax mark.City of Enkhuizen.
Enkhuizen is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia. Enkhuizen was one of the harbour-towns of the VOC, just like Hoorn and Amsterdam, from where overseas trade with the East Indies was conducted. It received city rights in 1355. In the mid-17th century, Enkhuizen was at the peak of its power and was one of the most important harbour cities in the Netherlands. However, due to a variety of reasons, notably the silting up of the harbours, Enkhuizen lost its position to Amsterdam.
Town mark is based on the coat of arms of Enkhuizen: 3 herrings placed under each other in a crowned shield. Makers mark NR for: Nanning Rondhout, registered 1768-1796, three herrings for Enkhuizen, date letter H=1769 or 1794 City of Gorinchem.
. It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa the year 1000 by fishermen and farmers on the raised land near the mouth of the river Linge at the Merwede. "Goriks Heem" is first mentioned in a document from 1224 in which Floris IV granted people from Gorinchem exemption of toll payments throughout Holland. Somewhere between 1247 and 1267, Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel. At the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre. Half a century later real city walls were built complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November 1322. Jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in 1417. This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the eighth city of Holland. On 9 July 1572, the Watergeuzen (Dutch rebels against Spanish rule) conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests and monks because they refused to renounce their faith. These priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from then on known as the Martyrs of Gorkum. In the 16th century the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions, which still are almost completely intact. The new walls were rounded off in 1609 and were placed farther from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In 1673 Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line. The city walls had four city gates: the Arkel Gate in the north, the Dalem Gate in the east, the Water Gate in the south (where the ferry to Woudrichem was), and the Kansel Gate in the west. Of these four gates only the Dalem Gate remains. In the 18th century, the economy went into decline. After the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged.
The first town mark of Gorinchem was based upon the city arms, three tower castle in combination with the coat of arms of the family of van Arkel; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_van_Arkel
Gorinchem year letter S for 1620, the town mark and maker's mark a button (knoop in Dutch) or "bell" for Cornelis Knoop 1605-1659.
Top left; Lion rampant, province standard mark for silver 934/1000, Top right; town mark Gorinchem, makers mark AS above a flower for: Adriaan van Sgravenweert, registered 1711-1739, date letter b for 1711 or 1735
The town mark of Gorinchem (province (zuid)Holland) has been based upon two crenelated beams( Coat of arms of the family van Arkel) in a shield with a crown but also seen without crown. At the end of the 18th century the two crenelated beams were simplified into a wave pattern. Gorinchem is pronounced Gorcum and often spelled Gorcum.
The maker's mark IS
for; Jacobus Schrader Sr registered in Gorcum from 1773-1811. Known flatware maker.
The crowned date letter for 2 st standard of silver 875/1000 fineness, X for 1780 or 1804.
From left to right; DR
for Dirk Rosenburg, registered 1789-1810, crowned O duty (free) mark of 1807 for old objects, Gorinchem year letter A, uncrowned for 1807 and 2nd standard silver, followed by the city mark of Gorinchem without crown for 2nd standard silver. Later in October 1807, the (hall)marks and year letter Kingdom of Holland were introduced.City of Gouda
. Around the year 1100, the area where Gouda now is located was swampy and covered with a peat forest, crossed by small creeks such as the Gouwe. Along the shores of this stream near the current market and city hall, peat harvesting began in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1139, the name Gouda is first mentioned in a statement from the Bishop of Utrecht. In the 13th century, the Gouwe was connected to the Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) by means of a canal and its mouth at the Hollandse IJssel was developed into a harbour. Castle Gouda was built to protect this harbour. This shipping route was used for trade between Flanders and France with Holland and the Baltic Sea. In 1272, Floris V, Count of Holland, granted city rights to Gouda, which by then had become an important location. City-canals or grachten were dug and served as transport ways through the town. Great fires in 1361 and 1438 destroyed the city. In 1572, the city was occupied by Les Gueux (Dutch rebels against the Spanish King) who also committed arson and destruction. In 1577 the demolition of Castle Gouda began. In 1574, 1625, 1636, and 1673, Gouda suffered from deadly plague epidemics, of which the last one was the most severe: 2995 persons died, constituting 20% of its population. In the last quarter of the 16th century, Gouda had serious economic problems. It recovered in the first half of the 17th century and even prospered between 1665 and 1672. But its economy collapsed again when war broke out in 1672 and the plague decimated the city in 1673, even affecting the pipe industry. After 1700, Gouda enjoyed a period of progress and prosperity until 1730. Then another recession followed, resulting in a long period of decline that lasted well into the 19th century. Gouda was one of the poorest cities in the country during that period: the terms "Goudaner" and "beggar" were considered synonymous.
Gouda town mark/ city coat of arms is based on the family coat of arms of the knights/lords of ‘Heren van der Goude’ vertical bar flanked by three stars.Crowned for 1st standard silver and uncrowned for 2nd standard silver.
From left to right
Finch in contour facing right maker's mark for: Pleunis van Geelen, registered in the city of Gouda during 1782-1807. Pleunis van Geelen became essayer and appraiser of the city Gouda in 1795. The city mark of Gouda uncrowned for 2nd standard of silver followed by the date-letter, unclear could be d
for either 1783 or 1788.City of Groningen.
. The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city already existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD. In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren was built, which loomed over the city at (then) 127 metres tall, making it perhaps the highest building in Europe at the time. The city's independence came to an end when in 1536, it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord. It later joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded, initially only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. That same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted an event which is celebrated with music and fireworks on 28 August (as “Gronings Ontzet” or “Bommen Berend”.
Groningen used a combined town mark and date letter. The town mark of Groningen is based on the coat of arms: an oval with a horizontal bar in the middle. Above the bar is a number to indicate the alphabet series used; below the bar an alphabetical letter. To indicate 1st standard silver, the combined town mark was struck twice and the maker’s mark struck twice. In this case; town mark Groningen, 8th alphabet for 1775-1776, makers mark JS for: Joseph Seeser, registered 1752-1781, 1st standard silver.City of Haarlem.
Guild city mark of Haarlem, the coat of arms: a sword flanked by two stars under a cross and crown. Haarlem receives a sword for its shield from the German emperor in thanks for the victory in Damietta during the 5th crusade. Scene is now referred to as "the legend of the Haarlem shield". Haarlem has a rich history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal (beach ridge), which connects Leiden to Alkmaar. The people on this narrow strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ and the Haarlem Lake from the east. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships and travellers moving on this busy North-South route. However, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a quiet bedroom community, and for this reason Haarlem still has many of its central medieval buildings intact.
Province mark Holland to indicate 1st standard silver 934/1000, town mark Haarlem, date letter N for 1699, maker’s mark (rotated 180 degrees to the right) HB conjoined for: Hendrik Blommendael , registered 1695-1700.City of Harlingen.
.Harlingen , West Frisian: Harns) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. Harlingen is an old town with a long history of fishing and shipping. Harlingen received city rights in 1234. The Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum in 1597 but moved to Harlingen in 1645.
Town mark of Harlingen is based on the coat of arms: a shield divided in four quarters, in two quarters we see 4 crosses and in two quarters we see three fleur de lies. Harlingen has used different variations.
Maker’s mark IS for: Johannes Spannenburgh , registered 1746-1785. Harlingen used date letters for Friesland.City of‘s-Hertogenbosch/Den Bosch
The origin of the city's name 'the Duke's forest' is clearly illustrated in the coat of arms. To explain the entire history of this colourful emblem you'd need an entire book, but here's the short answer. The first mention of the existence of the coat of arms dates to a document from 1242. The main feature on the coat of arms, the tree, is a telling symbol of the Duke's forest. The tree, accompanied by two smaller ones, was already implemented on the oldest known city seal. The eagle is the German Reich's eagle with the Austrian shield on its chest. The gold crown and the two wild men were added in 1670 when the coat of arms was placed on the new city hall. Why the wild men appeared on the coat of arms of ‘s-Hertogenbosch is unclear. One explanation could be that they made the forest dwellers who were associated with the founding of the city into guards.
Town mark is based on a crowned/uncrowned forest tree and at the end of the 18th century ‘s-Hertogenbosch town mark a ‘Wildman of the woods’. ‘s-Hertogenbosch date letter Z for 1749-1750, makers mark star under crown for: Theodorus van Berckel Jr., registered 1734-1770. City of Hoorn.
. Founded in 716, Hoorn rapidly grew to become a major harbour town. During Holland's 'Golden Age' (or 'Golden Century'), Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and a very prosperous centre of trade. The Hoorn fleet plied the seven seas and returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name far and wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587–1629) is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies (now Indonesia), where he "founded" the city of Batavia in 1619 (now Jakarta). He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. In 1618 Willem Bontekoe (1587–1657) undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC. His story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren ('Journal, or memorable description, of the East-Indian voyage of Willem Ysbrantz. Bontekoe of Hoorn, comprising many wondrous and dangerous things experienced by him'). In 1616, the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America. He named it Kaap Hoorn (Cape Horn) in honour of his home town. Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century. The prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk, or Great Enclosing Dyke, was completed and Hoorn was no longer a seaport.
The town mark is based on the coat of arms a music horn on a bow. Makers mark three stars for: Johannes Sieuwerts, registered 1778-1811, province mark 1st standard, date letter T=1779.City of Kampen.
. By 1150, there were already wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is currently located. The name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until 1277. The city has had city rights since 1236. As a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen quickly developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe. In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta.The silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from 1430 on. For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League. When the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: the city was forced to choose a side in the war. Kampen was originally more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, and therefore in 1441 formally joined the Hanseatic League. The city had much influence in the League; despite loud protests from the other towns in lower reaches of the IJssel and from other Hanseatic cities, the League agreed in 1448 to build a bridge over the river. This project was accomplished in just five months. With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. On 11 August 1572 Kampen was conquered from the Spaniards by Willem van den Bergh, a brother of William of Orange. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish. In 1578, the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland. From 1500 the islands were leased. The rents were so large that the city did not need to raise taxes.The Franco-Dutch War, fought by the Republic of the United Netherlands against the Kingdom of France, Sweden, the Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England, marked a definitive end to the enormous power of the city. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century. The city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow. During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were relatively high and within a few years, the river silted up again. As the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: some watercourses were dammed to allow for more water at a higher speed through one or two main routes. This had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, who, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was also involved in hydraulic engineering.
The town mark is based on the coat of arms, a castle/stronghold with three towers under a crown. Kampen used for 2nd standard silver a combined town and standard mark; R.D above three towers, R.D short for ‘Rijks Daalder’(coinsilver) 892/1000 fineness. The 1st standard indicated with a mark; GK in rectangle for’ Grote Keur’. Maker’s mark IVK for: Jan van Kamen(Camen) 1750-….., date letter R under dot, could be for 1751…..City of Leeuwarden.
. Leeuwarden Stadsfries: Liwwadden, Frisian: Ljouwert, is the capital city of the Frisian province of Friesland in the Netherlands.
. It is situated in the northern part of the country. The area has been occupied since the 10th century (although recently, remains of houses dating back to the 2nd century AD were discovered during a dig near the Oldehove), and was mentioned as a city in German sources in 1285. The actual city charter was granted in 1435. Situated along the Middelzee (Middle Sea), it was an active trade centre, until the waterway silted up in the 15th century. In 1901 the city had a population of 32,203.
A proto-Frisian culture slowly began to emerge around 400–200 BC known for its artificial dwelling hills as a defence against the sea. The Roman claim on Frisia began in 12 BC with the campaign of Nero Claudius Drusus in Germania. After a series of costly battles against the Frisians, the Romans were suddenly sworn fealty. The de facto independence they later enjoyed as a Roman vassal shows that this might have been a mostly diplomatic decision based on the temporary favourable bargaining position. Together with other Germanic tribes such as the Salians (later Franks) and the Batavii they managed to keep the region north of the Lower Rhine mostly free from Roman influence. The early eighth-century AD is known for the Frisian kingdom, king Redbad and the missionary Saint Boniface who was killed in Dokkum, Westlauwers Friesland. At the start of the Middle Ages, the Frisian Kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from what is now the French/Belgian border to the River Weser in Germany, with in its centre the flourishing trading post Dorestad. After incorporation into the Frankish empire, Friesland was divided into three parts. The westernmost part developed at the start of the second millennium into the County of Holland, while the remainder of Frisia had no feudal overlord, a situation known as the Frisian freedom. That ended when Charles V added Frisia to the Habsburg Netherlands as Lordship of Frisia. Under Napoleon, the department was named Frise. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813, the department became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as the province of Friesland.
.City of Leeuwarden together with the Frisian province mark(dual Lion) Clock wise; maker's mark IF for; Johannes Feddema, registered in Leeuwarden from1780-1811. Lion rampant in a crowned shield, guild city mark for Leeuwarden used as of 1779 till 1802.The Frisian province mark; two lions in a crowned shield, to indicate 1st standard or 934/1000 fineness. And the Frisian date letter H for 1785.
City of Leiden(Leijden)
. Leiden and archaic Dutch also Leyden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Centre. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of England's oldest university. Leiden has historically been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum. This particular castellum was however closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called. Leiden formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill (motte), was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4000 persons. Leiden flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important printing and publishing industry. The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir (1547–1617), who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted (in a variant spelling) by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) lived (and operated a printing press) for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World.
On 12 January 1807, a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17,400 kg (38,360 lb) of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden. 151 persons were killed, over 2000 were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the center of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years. In 1886 the space was turned into a public park, the Van der Werff. In the 17th century, Leiden prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15,000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45,000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70,000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam. From the late 17th century onwards Leiden slumped, mainly due to the decline of the cloth industries. In the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up, although industry remained central to Leiden economy. This decline is painted vividly by the fall in population. The population of Leiden had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.From the 17th to the early 19th century, Leiden was the publishing place of one of the most important contemporary journals, Nouvelles Extraordinaires de Divers Endroits, known also as Gazette de Leyde.
The coat of arms/crest of Leiden consists of 2 crossed keys; therefore they are an often seen symbol in Leiden. The keys are the symbol of the patron of the city; Saint Petrus. This tradition dates from 1293, when signets with Petrus on it were frequently used on documents.
Makers mark GHN for; Geradus Hendrikus Nieuwenhuyzen, registered 1792-1818, 1st standard silver, lion rampant without crown (French occupation), Town mark Leijden, two crossed keys under crown, date letter P=1797. Gerardus Hendrikus Nieuwenhuyzen registered in Leiden from 1792-1818. He used GHN from 1792-1811 and N above a Poppy in a lozenge (French style) from 1812/1818. Gerardus Hendricus Nieuwenhuijzen died in Leiden February 3, in 1818, born in Leiden, 49 years old, residing in Mare wijk 6 nr 1199, [i]zilversmid
Leijden, first mentioned in 1661, used for 2nd standard silver or ‘kleine keur’ single key combined with date letter, script L for 1794. The year letter could be above, next and under the key.City of Maastricht
The town mark of Maastricht is based on the coat of arms of Maastricht (Dutch: Wapen van Maastricht; Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Waope vaan Mestreech) is a symbol of the city of Maastricht, Limburg, The Netherlands. It consists of a red escutcheon (shield) with a five-pointed white star that is adorned by a coronet (crown) of gold whilst being held by an angel. Together with the flag of Maastricht, the coat of arms functions as the official symbol of Maastricht.
The 5 pointed star, city guild mark for the city of Maastricht in the province of Limburg. Date letter H for the time period: 1776-1778. Maker''s mark, ING Crowned for: Johannes N. Gilissen, registered 1772-1799.
And we also see a French hatchet; the poinçon de vieux, poinçon de hazard or second-hand mark.The French mark was struck tax free on objects with valid hallmarks.When an old object returned to the trade, in accordance with the French rules 1798-1809 it had to be re-submitted to the assay office for verification of the marks. When it proved that the marks on the object were still valid, the French hatchet was struck as a formality free of all charges, whereupon the object could be sold.
The separated city mark and date letter indicates; 1st standard silver or grote keur for 934/1000 fineness. ( 2nd standard or Kleine keur
, combined city mark and date letter in one shield). Maastricht used various silver standards and silver of Maastricht with the old Guild marks are hard to find.Maastricht's history in a nut shell.
Maastricht, an old Catholic stronghold and perhaps even the oldest settlement and city in the Netherlands. The important strategic location of Maastricht resulted during the ages in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city.
In 1579, when Spain ruled the Netherlands, the city of Maastricht was in the hands of Dutch rebels. In 1579, on the 12th of March, the Spanish General Alexander Farnese started to lay siege to the city with his army consisting of 20,000
men. The same year, on June 29th, the city was conquered and ransacked for more than three days, looting by the Spanish soldiers, citizen were raped and killed, blood and treasure lost including most of Maastricht's silver. Famiano Strada (Rome, 1572 - there, June 9, 1649) a Jesuit priest, historian and moralist, estimated the value of the booty, more than one million guilders.
Maastricht was occupied by the Spanish troops for 53 years. In 1632 the city was conquered by Frederick Henry the protestant Prince of Orange. His victory brought a certain degree of stability and introduced a new era of religious tolerance. The citizens of Maastricht had suffered tremendously during all sieges of their town but now Protestants and Catholics could coexist in some sort of harmony. In 1634 Maastricht came under tread of another Spanish siege and church & citizens were summoned by the Magistrate of Maastricht to hand over their silver & gold, in order to make coins, to pay for the extra costs to defend the city.
French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678. From 1748 till 1749 the French once again conquered the city. The French took the city one last time in 1794 and Maastricht was annexed to the First French Empire.In 1795 the bourgeoisie of Maastricht were forced to pay a very high war tax or if they could not comply to hand over their gold & silver and 1796 the municipal officials of Maastricht were ordered to hand over all their official silver to the French.
In 1795, the Old Regime of the Dutch republic under William V, Prince of Orange fled to the safety of England. History reveals that in general the Dutch citizen were not against the French and welcomed the later introduced Napoleonic Code or Code Napoléon, and officially Code civil des Français; the French civil code established under Napoleon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. These laws reflected the spirit of the French Revolution, and essentially liberated the common people of Europe and ended the Old Regime. Today the Civil Code forms the basis of many European legal systems.
After the Napoleonic Wars, the allies set to work to redraw the map of Europe. The solution they came up with for the Netherlands was to build a new united state combining Belgium and Holland to form a strong buffer to the north of France. This union did not last long. In 1830 the Belgians rose against the monarch and government of the north and declared their independence. Geographically Maastricht should have become a part of Belgium, but the garrison under General Dibbets remained loyal to the house of Orange. And in 1839, to the discontent of the Belgians, the province of Limburg was partitioned with Maastricht remaining in Dutch hands.