Silver Glossary

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Silver Glossary

Postby admin » Sun Feb 18, 2007 6:15 pm

The site's Silver Glossary needs expansion. To be perfectly honest, I'd much rather add new marks to the rest of the site than work on it.
So... if you'd like to add something to it, terms and definitions for inclusion are formally requested.
Just post 'em below.
Thanks, Tom

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Postby Granmaa » Sun Feb 18, 2007 7:05 pm

I think this is quite an important term.

Drop/heel: Of spoons; an extension used on the underside to strengthen the join between stem and bowl. Comes in such forms as: single, double and strap.

Miles

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Postby 2209patrick » Fri May 11, 2007 2:33 pm

Here's some ideas for the glossary.
Any criticisms, additions or even just rephrasing are encouraged.

CADDY.
A term deriving from the Malay word "kati", meaning a weight slightly less than 1.25 lb. Tea was sold in boxes containing this amount. In the late 18th century the term was transfered from the quantity to the container.
CHATELAINES
Ornamental clasps from which small objects for household use were hung on short chains. Clipped onto the belt.
CLOSE PLATE.
Used during the 18th century for items such as spurs, knife blades and buckles. Thin silver foil was soldered onto steel that had been dipped in tin. More cost-effective methods made this process obsolete during the 19th century.
MOUNTS
Additional decorative sections soldered onto an object. Mounts or borders on silverplate today are usually made of white metal.
Nickel silver or Alpacca, add:
It's more durable than other alloys used as base metals.
POMANDER.
May be regarded as the ancestor of the later vinaigrette. Originally held oranges stuffed with cloves to protect the wearer from the plague.
(This definition needs work. Help?)
PSEUDO MARKS.
Marks that have no meaning. Sometimes meant to imitate British sterling hallmarks.
STANDISH.
Original name for what became known as the inkstand in the Victorian period.
VESTA CASES
Were made to hold friction matches that were invented ca.1840. They have been known as "Vestas" since the late 19th century. Named after the Roman goddess of the hearth.
VINAIGRETTE.
A small container used to hold an aromatic sponge. Aromatic vinegar was used to disguise unpleasant odors. Most had a solid lid to conserve the perfume and a pierced grill held the sponge inside. Introduced in the mid 18th century and especially popular in the 1830's.
WHITE METAL.
Very similar to Britannia in composition. An alloy of tin, antimony and copper. Bismuth may also be added.
It is easily worked and is now used principally for trim and attached parts.

Pat.

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Postby Doos » Sat May 12, 2007 7:22 am

Hi Pat,

Maybe:
PSEUDO MARKS.
Marks that have no meaning. Sometimes meant to imitate official governmental hallmarks.

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Postby 2209patrick » Thu May 17, 2007 1:25 am

Here's another try at the psuedo marks definition.

PSEUDO MARKS.
Marks that are not regulated or administered by an assay office or guild.
Sometimes meant to imitate official governmental hallmarks.

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Postby Granmaa » Thu May 17, 2007 2:02 pm

How about this:

Duty Dodging: the illegal practice of avoiding both assay office charges and duty by stamping the maker's mark multiple times in order to resemble official hallmarks. Most often found on mid-18th century, bottom-marked British(?) flatware.


I've also recently posted an example of duty dodging in the British silver forum, if you want to use the picture Tom. It's not very clear though.

Miles

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Postby 2209patrick » Wed May 23, 2007 2:21 am

APOSTLE SPOONS

The finials on these spoons portray the twelve apostles and Christ.
The apostles can be identified by the emblems in their right hand.
These emblems are symbolic of their martydom or an important event in their lives.
However, the figures were not restricted to the apostles, and included other saints.
Although made in sets of thirteen, they were often sold individually to commemorate a childs baptism.

- Christ, giving a blessing with right hand and holding a cross in the left.
- St Peter, key or fish.
- St. Andrew, saltire cross.
- St. James the Greater, pilgrim's staff.
- St. John, chalice or cup.
- St. Philip, staff with a cross on the end.
- St. James the Lessor, fuller's bat or club.
- St. Thomas, spear.
- St. Bartholomew, butcher or flaying knife.
- St. Matthew, money bag or axe.
- St. Matthias, halberd.
- St. Jude, carpenters square or cross.
- St Simon, saw.
- St. Paul, sword.

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Postby Doos » Wed May 23, 2007 12:49 pm

Hi,

For completeness,
Jude Iskariot, no attributes and usually not used for spoons.

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Postby Doos » Sat Jun 02, 2007 6:55 am

Hi,

I'll give a shot at "apprentice".

In the time of the guilds, apprentices were young men in training. They usually started working around the age of 12 to 14 and worked for the same master for several years while being trained as a gold- or silversmith. The guilds were closed communities and not everyone was eligible to become a trainee.

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Postby Granmaa » Sat Jun 02, 2007 7:25 am

I think Pat's Apostle spoon is good and that there should be a date accompanying it. The earliest known English hallmarked example is 1478. ref N. Gask Old Silver Spoons of England.

It's hard to know what to do with Duty Dodging: the whole idea of silversmiths "dodging" may be erroneous, but my definition is what people mean when they describe a piece as such.
To include it might perpetuate error, and to exclude it would leave those who came across the term in doubt. Perhaps, if you do add it Tom, you could provide the link to the discussion on the topic: http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=7784

Miles

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Postby Doos » Sat Jun 02, 2007 7:57 am

Hi,

How about this:
Duty dodging in general is a form of tax and/or duty evasion for a finished piece of silver and/or gold. These items will not carry the official government stamps. There are many other, non-malicious, reasons a piece of silverware does not carry the official stamps which are not considered dodging.

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Postby dognose » Sat Jun 02, 2007 1:12 pm

Hi Tom,
Would this do?

Trefid: Type of stem end with two notches cut in creating three lobes with the centre one turned up, popular c.1660-1700 and is usually accompanied with a Rat-Tail bowl.

Dog-Nose: Type of stem end similar to Trefid but without the notches and with the upper protuberance turned up, originaly called Wavy End it was popular c.1695-1720 and is usually accompanied with a Rat-Tailed bowl.

Please edit as you think fit,
Regards Trev.

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Postby Doos » Sat Jun 02, 2007 1:15 pm

Hi,

Baluster:
A baluster is a 3-dimensional turned object of alternating concave and convex forms, resembling the shape of a classical vase. They were used as pilars and legs for silverware.

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Postby dognose » Sat Jun 02, 2007 2:42 pm

Hi Tom,
Here's another,

Onslow: Pattern of flatware sometimes called Scroll, narrow stemmed, widening at the terminal which was ribbed and folding over downwards, popular c. 1740-1760. Said to be named after Arthur Onslow (1691-1768) Speaker of the House of Commons.

Regards Trev.

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Postby dognose » Sat Jun 02, 2007 3:33 pm

Hi Tom,
Three more,

Ciborium: Cup and cover used as a container for Holy Communion Wafers.

Chalice: A cup used for wine at Holy Communion.

Censer: Openwork container, suspended on chains, used for burning incense in religious ceremonies.

Regards Trev.

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Postby Granmaa » Sat Jun 02, 2007 3:40 pm

Salver: A tray or flat dish used to present letters and drinks, usually round and supported by three or four feet.

Waiter: Smaller version of salver.

Georgian : Made during the reigns of the first four kings of England called George (1714-1830), or of a similar style.

Edwardian: Made during the reigns of any of the King Edwards (specifically Edward VII - 1901-1910), or of a similar style.

Miles

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Postby 2209patrick » Sun Jun 03, 2007 8:08 pm

Here's some more:

BOTTLE TICKET
A small silver plaque hung around the neck of a bottle to identify the contents.
First produced in the second quarter of the 18th century.
After paper labels were introduced in the mid 19th century few were made.
Later known as wine labels, liqueur labels and decanter labels.

BRAZIER
Also known as a chafing dish. Used under a plate to keep food warm at the dining table. Pierced sides alowed air to pass over the hot embers that were held within. Later ones were fitted with spirit burners.
By the mid-18th century it had been replaced by the dish cross.

CIGAR LAMP
A small oil lamp that was used to light cigars. Usually had a single wick opening and a snuffer on a chain.
Produced during the 19th century and early 20th century.

TUMBLER CUP
A cup with a rounded base that was thicker and heavier than the sides.
This caused the tumbler to always resume an upright position.
They vary greatly in size. Popular during the late 17th century and 18th century.

Pat.

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Postby dognose » Tue Jun 05, 2007 3:59 pm

Hi Tom,

Chinoiserie: Pseudo oriental decoration on silver, popular mid to late 17th. century followed by a revival in the second quarter of the 18th. century which also influenced porcelain and furniture.

Dish-cross: X shaped device for protecting tables from hot dishes with arms that can be adjusted to various sizes, often fitted with a spirit burner the earliest examples date from 1740.

Dish-ring: Forerunner to the dish-cross, circular with concave openwork sides to release the heat their popularity faded with the advent of the dish-cross, except in Ireland where they became ever more popular for the next 150 years, also known as potato rings.

Etui: Small cylindrical container with hinged lid, used for holding needles etc. often found as part of a chatelaine.

Mazer: Wooden drinking bowl with silver mounts, a surprising number of these have survived due to relatively small amount of silver used they were not worth melting down, popular 14th. to 16th. century.

Nef: Silver model of a ship fitted with containers for table condiments, only really known on mainland Europe.

Regards Trev.

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Postby dognose » Fri Jun 08, 2007 2:55 pm

Hi Tom,


Berry Spoon: Popular name given to a spoon that has been embossed from the underside of the bowl with fruit, berries and flowers etc. A Victorian practice performed on the plainer Georgian spoon thus ruining the spoon by altering its original state.

Blackjack: Stiff leather drinking vessel with a single handle usually with a silver rim, base and sometimes an escutcheon on the side.

Grimwades: A veritable bible for collectors of London silver, first published in 1976 its author is Arthur G. Grimwade F.S.A., it contains details of some 4,000 makers' marks and information on the lives of London silversmiths from 1697-1837.
Mr. Grimwade has the undying gratitude of many students of silver.

Regards Trev.

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Postby dognose » Mon Jun 11, 2007 1:29 pm

Hi Tom,

Rococo: Naturalistic style of decoration, using flowers, shells and swags, popular 1730-1765 with an 1830's revival.

Thread edge: Border or edging created with narrow lines of reeding.

Ewer: Wide spouted jug with a single handle.

Bleeding: Term used when the silver plating on Sheffield Plate wears through exposing the copper beneath.

Tempering: Heating metal to strengthen it.

Graver: Sharp tool for engraving silver.

Image

Regards Trev.
Last edited by dognose on Fri Feb 26, 2010 8:18 am, edited 1 time in total.


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