"For the advanced reader we have compiled and present here an updated list of known silversmith marks on regulated gold coins of North America and the West Indies, with the locations and dates attributed to each artisan. In terms of $15 doubloons, only two metalsmiths are known to have crafted their own pieces in the U.S.: Ephraim Brasher of New York (EB, 1786-87) and Standish Barry of Baltimore (SB, ca. 1790). Furthermore, only four metalsmiths so far are known to have regulated Spanish doubloons: Ephraim Brasher (EB, ca. 1784), John Burger of New York (script-JB, 1784-1805), Joseph Richardson of Philadelphia (IR, ca. 1776) and Joseph Edwards, Jr. of Boston (I•E, prior to 1783). Only the last-mentioned is known to have regulated a cob doubloon (lot #83 in our Auction #23, May 2018).
Gold regulator9 marks known to the author so far on regulated (mostly plugged10) gold coins11 compiled from recent sales and references, in alphabetical order by mark:
Crowned A•R = Arnaud and Ruffy, Martinique, ca. 1798
D.V = Daniel Van Voorhis, New York, 1782-87
EB = Ephraim Brasher, New York, ca. 1784
F&G = Lewis Feuter and partner, New York (British occupation), prior to 1784 Script-GC with cayman = George Clinton, Jamaica, ca. 1770-80
GL = Gabriel Lewin (or Lewyn), Baltimore, ca. 1771
IB = John Bayly (or Bayley), Philadelphia, ca. 1793
IC = Joseph Carpenter (Norwich, 1747-1804) or John Coburn (Boston, 1725-1803)
ID (or JD) = John David, Jr, Philadelphia, 1765-94
I•E = Joseph Edwards, Jr., Boston, prior to May 1783
I•LT = John Letelier (or Le Tellier), Philadelphia, ca. 1770-90
IR = Joseph Richardson, Jr., Philadelphia, ca. 1776
IS = Joseph Smith (unconfirmed), Boston, prior to 178912
Script-monogram-JB = John Burger (or Burgher), New York, 1784-1805
Script-J•B = James Barret, Norwich, ca. 1800
Script-JC = Joseph Callender (or Callendar), Boston, 1771-1821
LF = Lewis Feuter, New York (British occupation), prior to 1784
MM = Myer Myers, New York, ca. 1784
OH = Oliver Hastings (Hatfield [Massachusetts], date unknown) or Otis Howe (Boston, 1788-1825) (PS = Philip Syng, Philadelphia, prior to 1789, unknown so far on coins but stated in records)
RH = Richard Humphreys (or Humphries), Philadelphia, ca. 1777
9 Many of these marks were attributed by Gordon to various West Indies islands, but by his own admission, it was an “intriguing minor mystery” that so many Brazilian “Joes” (actually half Joes) ended up in the islands when there was virtually no trade between them and Brazil. The North American colonies and early U.S., on the other hand, relied heavily on the West Indies trade, and Brazilian gold coins likely reached the British colonies through Portuguese trade. In the years since Gordon’s book, it has come to light that North American metalsmiths played a far bigger role in these gold coins than previously thought. Also note that this list does not include any marks specifically attributed to the place itself, like ED for Essequibo & Demerara or S for St. Vincent, for example.
10 Note that by “plugged” we mean coins with interior plugs (usually large), as opposed to edge plugs that could have been simple fillings for mounting holes. Also, it is not unusual to see West Indies coins with multiple central plugs, one inside another, or even gaping central holes where plugs were removed. Coins with unmarked plugs, as well as some coins with silversmith marks but no plugs, are omitted here for lack of proper available analysis.
11 In addition to the doubloons and half Joes, the types of gold coins known with regulation marks include French Louis d’ors, English guineas and other Portuguese (Brazilian) coins, as well as Spanish colonial “pistoles” (cob 2 escudos) and even “double pistoles” (cob 4 escudos).
12 For whatever reason, several IS coins are known with further plugging and stamping for the island of St. Vincent (1798).
SS = Samuel Soumain (unconfirmed), New York or Annapolis, prior to 1765 TP = Thomas Pons, Boston, 1782-1811
TS = Thomas Shields, Philadelphia, ca. 1777
TU = Thomas Underhill, New York, 1775-1786
WH = William Hollingshead (Philadelphia, prior to 1785) or William Homes, Jr. (Boston, 1742-1825) or William Huertin (New York, prior to 1771)
W.S = William Stephenson or William Sutton, Grenada, ca. 1798 W.T. = William Taylor, Philadelphia, ca. 1777
In addition, the following marks do not correspond to any known silversmith marks yet, and it is believed most are West Indies: AB below bird; script-B; monogram-CM, associated with Curaçao, ca. 1800; script-D; F.L; GH, associated with St. Vincent, ca. 1798; I•H; script-JR, associated with Grenada, ca. 1798; script-JW (or - IW), associated with Grenada, ca. 1798; LC; MC(?), associated with Tortola, ca. 1798; RC; script-RG; T•D; WARNER(?); WB; WG."